Imisele yase-Ocean

imisele yasolwandle

Bekuhlale kushiwo ukuthi iphansi lolwandle liyimfihlakalo kubantu ngokunikwa ukujula nobunzima obukhulu bokulifunda. I- imisele yolwandle zingumgodi ongelulwandle. Ukwakheka kwayo kungumphumela womsebenzi wamacwecwe ama-tectonic, okuthi lapho elinye lawo liguquka, licindezelwe ngaphansi kwelinye. Ngale ndlela, kwakhiwa okwaziwa njengokuxineka okude futhi okuncane okwenziwe ngo-V okufinyelela ekujuleni kolwandle. Eminye yemisele emikhulu yolwandle ifinyelela ekujuleni kwamakhilomitha ayi-10 ngaphansi kogu lolwandle.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngemisele yolwandle nezimpawu zazo eziyinhloko.

Izici eziyinhloko

imisele yolwandle

Umsele wasolwandle ojulile yi UMariana Trench eseduze naseziQhingini ZaseMarine ezinobude obungaphezu kwamakhilomitha angama-2,542. Ubuningi balawa mathuna atholakala oLwandlekazi iPacific ikakhulukazi endaweni ebizwa ngeRing of Fire. Kulo mgodi kukhona i-Challenger Abyss enayo ukujula kwamamitha ayi-10.911 engxenyeni ejulile. Kubhekwa njengokujula okuphezulu okufinyelela olwandle. Kusho ukuthi uma siqhathanisa iMariana Trench neMount Everest, ingamamitha ayi-2.000 XNUMX ukujula.

Phakathi kwezici eziyinhloko yonke imisele yolwandle enayo, sithola ingcindezi ephezulu nokuntuleka kwelanga. Cishe kuyo yonke imisele kunenani elikhulu lengcindezi elethwa ngamanzi ngokujula. Kumele futhi kubhekwe ukuthi ukukhanya kwelanga akufinyeleli lapha ngakho-ke, amazinga okushisa nawo ehla kakhulu. Yilezi zici ezenza amathuna abe ngenye yezindawo zokuhlala ezihluke kakhulu emhlabeni wonke.

Ukwakhiwa kwemisele yolwandle

ukujula kwemisele yolwandle

Amapuleti eTectonic ayimbangela yokwakhiwa kwemisele yolwandle. Akhiwa ikakhulukazi ngokuncipha. Subduction inqubo ye-geophysical lapho amapuleti amabili noma ngaphezulu we-tectonic ahlangana komunye nomunye. Imvamisa, ipuleti elidala neliminyene kakhulu le-tectonic yilona elidudulwa ngaphansi kwepuleti elilula kakhulu. Lokhu kunyakaza kwepuleti kudala ukuthi ulwandle lwangaphakathi koqweqwe lwangaphandle luguqele emthambekeni. Ngokuvamile lokhu kucindezeleka okwakheka kufane ne-V. Le yindlela okwakhiwa ngayo imisele yolwandle.

Sizojula ngokwazi ukuthi yiziphi izindawo ezingaphansi.

Indawo yokudonswa

Lapho isenqenqemeni lwengqamuzana eliminyene le-tectonic elinenye onqenqemeni oluncane kakhulu, ipuleti elinobuningi obuphezulu ligobela phansi. Indawo lapho ipuleti elincane elincishisiwe yilokho okwaziwa ngokuthi indawo engaphansi. Le nqubo yenza izinto zibe ngokuma komhlaba kanye namandla. Iningi lale misele yolwandle ibhekene nokuzamazama komhlaba okuningi olwandle. Futhi ngukuthi ekubambeni ipuleti elilodwa kwelinye lenza amandla amakhulu kakhulu wokungqubuzana. Imvamisa kuyisizinda sokuzamazama komhlaba okukhulu kanye nokuzamazama komhlaba okujulile okurekhodiwe.

Lezi zinto zingabuye zakhiwe ngendawo yokuqothula ehlanganisa uqweqwe lwamazwekazi kanye noqweqwe lwasolwandle. Kuyaziwa ukuthi uqweqwe lwamazwekazi luhlala luntanta ngaphezu kolwandle, ngakho-ke olokugcina luzohlala luthambisa. Izinto ezaziwa kakhulu zasolwandle zingumphumela walomngcele ophakathi kwamapuleti aguqukayo. Kuyaqabukela ukuthi umsele wolwandle wakheke lapho amapuleti amabili ezwekazi ehlangana.

Ukubaluleka kwemisele yolwandle

Abantu bahlale bememezela ukuthi imisele yolwandle ibaluleke kakhulu. Ulwazi mayelana nengaphakathi lalo lilinganiselwe kakhulu ngokujula okukhulu kwempilo. Futhi endaweni ekude yokuba khona kwayo. Kodwa-ke, ososayensi bayayazi indima ebalulekile abayidlalayo ezimpilweni zethu. Imisebenzi eminingi yomzimba yenzeka ezindaweni ezingaphansi kokuncishiswa. Lokhu kungaba nomthelela omubi emiphakathini esogwini nasemnothweni womhlaba. Kunokuningi ongakubona kunokuzamazama komhlaba okukhiqizwa phansi olwandle endaweni engaphansi babephethe i-tsunami eJapan ngo-2011.

Ososayensi bafunda izici nempilo emseleni wolwandle ukuze baqonde kangcono iplanethi yethu. Futhi ukuthi kunezindlela eziningi zokuzivumelanisa nezinto ezahlukahlukene ekujuleni kolwandle. Okuningi kokuzivumelanisa nezimo kungadluliselwa phambili ukuze kuthuthukiswe ezobuchwepheshe nezokuphila ukuze kube nokuthuthuka kwezokwelapha. Ngenxa yezifundo eziningi zesayensi, kungenzeka ukuqonda kangcono ukwakheka kwezinto eziphilayo futhi uvumelane nempilo enzima yalezi zindawo. Ukwazi le ndlela yokuzivumelanisa nezimo kungasiza ukuqonda ezinye izindawo zocwaningo kusuka ukwelashwa kwesifo sikashukela kuze kube ngcono ukugeza.

Olunye uphenyo olwenziwe mayelana nemisele yolwandle ukutholakala kwamagciwane. Le microbe inendawo yayo emiphethweni ye-hydrothermal olwandle olujulile. Ngenxa yokuba khona kwalezi zinambuzane, sekutholakele ukuthi zinamandla ezinhlobonhlobo zama-antibiotic nemithi yokuvikela umdlavuza. Konke lokhu okutholakele nokuphenya yikhona okwenza imisele yolwandle ibaluleke kakhulu.

Kungasithatha futhi ukuthi sazi isihluthulelo sokuqonda imvelaphi yokuphila olwandle. I-genetics yezinto eziphilayo isebenzela ukwazi umlando wokuthi impilo yanda kanjani isuka emvelweni ihlukaniswe njengalezi zinto nomhlaba olwandle. Okunye okutholwe muva nje kukhombisa ukuthi kutholakale inani elikhulu le-carbon matter emigodini. Lokhu kusho ukuthi zonke lezi zifunda zingadlala indima enkulu esimweni sezulu seplanethi yoMhlaba.

Izimbali nezilwane

impilo yasolwandle

Njengoba lezi zindawo kuyizindawo zokuhlala ezinobutha kakhulu emhlabeni, impilo ayivamile. Kukhona ingcindezi ephakeme izikhathi eziyi-1000 kunaleyo engaphezulu kanye nezinga lokushisa elingaphezu kukaqhwa. Ilanga alingeni emseleni wolwandle, okwenza i-photosynthesis ingenzeki. Izinto eziphilayo ezihlala lapha zikwazile ukuvela ngokuguquguquka okwehlukile ukuze zikwazi ukuhlala kulezi zigodi ezibandayo nezimnyama.

Ngaphandle kwe-photosynthesis, yonke le miphakathi ineqhwa lasolwandle njengokudla kwayo okuyinhloko. Kungukuwa kwezinto eziphilayo ezivela ezindaweni eziphakeme kukholamu lamanzi. Ngokuyinhloko iqukethe imfucuza enjengendle nezinsalela zezinto eziphilayo ezifile ezinjengezinhlanzi nokhula lwasolwandle. Omunye umthombo wezakhamzimba awuveli i-photosynthesis kodwa i-chemosynthesis. Kuyindlela lapho izinto ezinjengebhaktheriya ziguqula khona amakhemikhali abe izakhi zomzimba.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemisele yolwandle nokubaluleka kwayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.