Imisebe yeGamma

imisebe ye-gamma

Emkhakheni we-physics yenuzi, izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zemisebe ezikhona ziyafundwa. Kulokhu, sizogxila ekutadisheni i- imisebe ye-gamma. Yimisebe kagesi ekhiqizwa ukubola kwemisebe ye-athomu ye-athomu. Le misebe ye-gamma inemisebe ephezulu kakhulu futhi iphakathi kwengozi kakhulu kubantu, kanye neminye imisebe ye-ionizing.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela ukuthi yiziphi izici, ukubaluleka nokusetshenziswa kwemisebe ye-gamma.

Izici eziyinhloko

ukusetshenziswa kwemisebe

Ngokufingqa, sizoklelisa izici eziyinhloko zemisebe ye-gamma:

  • Ziyizinhlayiya ezingasaphumuli selokhu zihamba ngejubane lokukhanya.
  • Futhi abanayo imali kagesi ngoba abahlanekezelwa amandla kagesi nawamandla kazibuthe.
  • Banamandla amancane kakhulu e-ionizing yize angena kakhulu. Imisebe ye-Gamma radon zingadlula ku-15 cm wensimbi.
  • Angamagagasi afana nokukhanya kepha anamandla kakhulu kune-X-ray.
  • Isakhi esisebenza ngemisebe esifakwa endalweni futhi sigweme imisebe ye-gamma senza sikwazi ukutadisha le ndlala ngokuyithola ogwini.

Inemisebe ephezulu kakhulu futhi ingenye yemisebe eyingozi kakhulu kubantu, njengayo yonke imisebe ye-ionizing. Ingozi ilele ekutheni angamagagasi anamandla amakhulu angalimaza ama-molecule angahlehleki. akha amangqamuzana, abangela ukuguquka kwezakhi zofuzo ngisho nokufa. Emhlabeni singabona imithombo yemvelo yemisebe ye-gamma ekubolile kwama-radionuclides nokuxhumana kwemisebe ye-cosmic nomoya osemkhathini; imbalwa kakhulu imisebe ekhiqiza lolu hlobo lwemisebe.

Izici ze-Gamma ray

imisebe ye-gamma esikhaleni

Imvamisa, imvamisa yale radiation inkulu kune-1020 Hz, ngakho-ke inamandla amakhulu kune-100 keV kanye nobude obungaphansi kwe-3 × 10 -13 m, incane kakhulu kunobubanzi be-athomu. Ukusebenzisana okubandakanya imisebe ye-gamma yamandla kusuka ku-TeV kuya ku-PeV nakho kufundiwe.

Imisebe yeGamma ingena kakhulu kunemisebe ekhiqizwa ezinye izinhlobo zokubola kwemisebe, noma ukubola kwe-alpha nokubola kwe-beta, ngenxa yokuthambekela okuncane kokusebenzisana nodaba. Imisebe yeGamma yakhiwa ngama-photon. Lokhu ngumehluko omkhulu kusuka emisebeni ye-alpha eyenziwe ngemisebe ye-helium nuclei ne-beta eyenziwe ngama-electron.

Ama-Photons, njengoba zingahlonyisiwe ngobuningi, zincane ionizing. Kulezi zikhathi, incazelo yezimo zokuxhumana phakathi kwensimu ye-electromagnetic nento ayinakuziba imishini ye-quantum. Imisebe ye-Gamma ihlukaniswa nama-X-ray ngemvelaphi yayo. Akhiqizwa ngokushintshwa kwenuzi noma kwe-subatomic, noma kunjalo, kuyilapho ama-X-ray akhiqizwa ngokushintshwa kwamandla ngenxa yama-electron angena emazingeni amaningi angaphakathi wamandla wamahhala avela emazingeni angaphandle wamanani angaphandle.

Njengoba ezinye izinguquko ze-elekthronikhi zingadlula amandla ezinguquko ezithile zenuzi, imvamisa yama-X-ray anamandla aphakeme ingaba phezulu kunemvamisa yama-gamma ray anamandla aphansi. Kepha empeleni, onke angamagagasi kagesi, njengamagagasi omsakazo nokukhanya.

Izinto zokwakha zenziwa ngenxa yemisebe ye-gamma

i-spectrum kagesi

Izinto ezidingekayo ukuvikela imisebe ye-gamma zikhulu kakhulu kunalokho okudingekayo ukuvikela izinhlayiya ze-alpha ne-beta. Lezi zinto zingavinjelwa ngephepha elilula (α) noma ipuleti lensimbi elincanyana (β). Izinto ezinenombolo ephezulu ye-athomu nobuningi obuphezulu zingathola kangcono imisebe ye-gamma. Eqinisweni, uma kudingeka i-1 cm yomthofu ukunciphisa ukushuba kwemisebe ye-gamma ngo-50%, umphumela ofanayo kwenzeka ngo-6 cm kasimende no-9 cm womhlaba ocindezelweyo.

Izinto zokuvikela zivame ukulinganiswa ngokobukhulu obudingekayo ukusika amandla emisebe ngesigamu. Ngokusobala, amandla e-photon ayanda, ubukhulu besivikelo esidingekayo bukhulu.

Ngakho-ke, kudingeka izikrini ezijiyile ukuvikela abantu, ngoba imisebe ye-gamma nama-X-ray kungadala ukusha, umdlavuza, nokuguquka kwezakhi zofuzo. Ngokwesibonelo, ezitshalweni zamandla enuzi, isetshenziselwa ukuvikela insimbi nosimende ekuqukethe amapellets, ngenkathi amanzi angavimbela imisebe ngesikhathi sokugcinwa kwenduku kaphethiloli noma ukuthuthwa okuyisisekelo kwe-reactor.

Sebenzisa

Ukwelashwa kwemisebe ye-Ionizing kuyindlela ebonakalayo esetshenziselwa ukufeza inzalo yezinto zokwakha ezempilo nezenhlanzeko, ukungcoliswa kokudla, izinto zokusetshenziswa kanye nemikhiqizo yezimboni, kanye nokusebenza kwazo kweminye imikhakha, Sizobona ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Le nqubo ifaka ukuveza umkhiqizo wokugcina ohlanganisiwe noma wenqwaba kumandla omoya. Lokhu kwenziwa ekamelweni elikhethekile elibizwa ngegumbi le-irradiation esimweni ngasinye futhi esikhathini esithile. La magagasi angena ngokuphelele emikhiqizweni esobala, kufaka phakathi imikhiqizo ehlanganisiwe enhlobonhlobo.

Ukusetshenziswa kweCobalt 60 ekwelapheni izifo zesimila kuyindlela okwamanje esabalele kakhulu ezweni lami nasemhlabeni ngenxa yokusebenza kwayo nokuphepha kwangaphakathi. Kubizwa ngokuthi ukwelashwa kwe-cobalt noma ukwelashwa kwe-cobalt futhi kuhilela ukuveza izicubu zesimila emisebeni ye-gamma.

Ukuze wenze lokhu, kusetshenziswa lokho okubizwa ngokuthi yi-cobalt treatment device, enenhloko ephethe izikhali efakwe i-cobalt 60, futhi ifakwe idivaysi elawula kahle ukuvezwa okudingekayo esimweni ngasinye ukuze kulashwe ngokwanele lesi sifo.

Ukusetshenziswa kokuqala kwezentengiselwano kwamandla e-ionization kusukela ekuqaleni kwawo-1960. Namuhla, kunezitshalo ezizungeze i-160 zemisebe esebenza emhlabeni, isatshalaliswa emazweni angaphezu kwama-30, ihlinzeka ngezinsizakalo ezahlukahlukene zezimboni eziningi ngokwengeziwe.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, yize iyingozi, umuntu uyakwazi ukusebenzisa imisebe ye-gamma ezindaweni eziningi njengoba kunxenxwa yimithi. Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemisebe ye-gamma nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.