Iyini imiphumela yokuncibilika e-Arctic?

Iqhwa lase-Arctic

Esikhathini esingengakanani esidlule i-Arctic Ocean yayimbozwe yonke yiqhwa unyaka wonke, kufaka phakathi ehlobo. Ebusika, amashidi e-ice ayemakhulu kakhulu futhi asakazeka ezindaweni eziphansi, ekugcineni ahlanganisa uLwandle iGreenland nolwandle iBering. Ehlobo, ngenxa yokwanda kwamazinga okushisa, amashidi eqhwa ahlehla nokho, unqenqema olufriziwe lwafinyelela eduze kakhulu nasogwini.

Lesi simo siyashintsha ngokuhamba kweminyaka. Ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho izigaxa zeqhwa zincane futhi kunendawo encane efriziwe. Yini ebingenzeka uma i-Arctic ibingenalo iqhwa ngokuphelele?

Ukubuyisela ama-ice sheet

Isimo ebesizibona sikuso ngaphambili kanye nalesi esinaso manje sihluke ngokuphelele. Ubuso obabuya emuva ngaleso sikhathi yayinamakhilomitha-skwele angaba yizigidi eziyi-8 ngenyanga kaSepthemba, namuhla kuphela ngaleyo nyanga cishe amakhilomitha ayizigidi ezingama-3-4. Ngenyanga kaSepthemba kulapho kuba khona ukuhlehla okukhulu kwama-ice sheet. Lokhu kukhombisa ukuthi ukushuba kwamashidi e-ice kuncishiswe ngesigamu. Iqhwa lasehlobo liyikota yesine kuphela yevolumu eyayinayo ngawo-XNUMX.

Ngenxa yokufudumala kwembulunga yonke, i-Arctic ithuthukisa ukuncibilika kwayo kabili noma kathathu ijubane lomhlaba wonke. Lokhu kungenxa yochungechunge lokuhamba lokushisa oluvela enkabazwe. Lokhu kushesha kokufudumala kwe-Arctic kuzoholela ehlobo elingenalo iqhwa esikhathini esifushane.

ukuncibilika kwe-arctic

Unyaka nonyaka lapho kubhalwa amazinga okushisa waminyaka yonke, siyabona ukuthi kuyashisa kunakuqala, ngo-2016 kube okushisa kakhulu selokhu amazinga okushisa aqala ukukalwa lapho ngawo-1880. Ngaphambilini, ngenkathi kubhekwa iqhwa lase-Arctic, kwakukhulunywa ngakho iqhwa leminyaka eminingi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi iqhwa elalibonwa lalakheke eminyakeni eminingana edlule nokuthi lahlala ngemuva kokuhamba kwezinkathi. Ngenxa yeminyaka eyasungulwa ngayo, babekwazi ukufinyelela ezindaweni eziphakeme kakhulu, isimo sendawo esimangelengele nemikhawulo emikhulu eyayivimbela ukudlula kwabahloli bamazwe nemikhumbi.

Namuhla cishe lonke iqhwa elibukwayo lingonyaka wokuqala. Okusho ukuthi, kwakhiwe phakathi nenkathi yamanje. Imvamisa zifinyelela kuphela ingamamitha ayi-1,5 ukujiya futhi ayinayo ngaphezu kwemikhawulo embalwa. Iqhwa elenzeka ebusika obubodwa (futhi kucatshangelwa ukuthi isikhathi ngasinye lapho amazinga okushisa ephakeme) lingancibilika phakathi nehlobo elilodwa. Lokhu kubangela ukufa kweqhwa ehlobo.

Imiphumela yokunyamalala kweqhwa

Kwehlisiwe i-albedo

Selokhu saqala ukukhuluma ngokufudumala komhlaba kanye nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu, besilokhu sikhuluma ngokuncibilika kweqhwa lase-Arctic nase-Antarctic. Yebo, imiphumela yokunyamalala kwala maqhwa amakhulu ziyamangaza kakhulu iplanethi. I-Albedo iphesenti lemisebe yelanga ekhonjiswa noma ebuyela emkhathini. Yebo, omunye wemiphumela yokunyamalala kwama-ice sheet kungaba ukwehliswa kwe-albedo kusuka 0,6% kuya ku-0,1%. Lokhu kuholela ekugcineni okukhulu ukushisa ebusweni bomhlaba, ngakho-ke, ukwanda kwamazinga okushisa omhlaba jikelele.

albedo

Inkinga nge-albedo ukuthi iqhwa lasehlobo lihlehla ngesikhathi lapho kutholwa imisebe eminingi yelanga. Ukunyamalala okuqhubekayo kweqhwa kunciphisa i-albedo emhlabeni jikelele. Lokhu kufaka isandla ama-25% emiphumeleni eqondile yokushisa komhlaba okubangelwa ngabantu. Kuyabonakala futhi ukuthi, njengoba iqhwa lasolwandle linyamalala, iqhwa elisogwini liyancibilika ngokushesha okukhulu entwasahlobo, ngenxa yemfudumalo yomoya ovela olwandle olucwebile.

Ukukhuphuka kwamazinga olwandle

Umphumela wesibili wokuhlehla kwama-ice sheet waziwa kangcono. Kumayelana yokwenyuka kwamazinga olwandle. Iqhwa lasehlobo liyikota yesine kuphela yevolumu eyayinayo ngawo-XNUMX. Lokhu kubangela ukuthi amanzi ancibilikile azungeze amakepisi aze aphelele olwandle, andise izinga lawo. Ochwepheshe be-IPCC balinganisele ukukhuphuka kwezinga lolwandle ngaphezu kwemitha elilodwa. Lolu ushintsho olungalungiseki oluzoba nemiphumela emibi emadolobheni asogwini njengaseMiami, eNew York, eShanghai naseVenice, kanye nokwandisa imvamisa yezikhukhula ezingxenyeni ezisicaba nezigcwele njengaseBangladesh.

Ukukhishwa kweMethane

Umphumela wesithathu usongo olusondele kakhulu esintwini. Ingabe mayelana ukukhishwa kwemethane olwandle. I-Arctic inohlelo lwayo lokungenisa umoya olusebenzayo inqobo nje uma kukhona ama-ice sheet ebusweni bamanzi. Ehlobo, noma ngabe kuneqhwa elincane, amazinga okushisa amanzi awakwazi ukukhuphuka ngaphezu kwama-0 degrees. Kungakho kugcinwa uhlelo lokupholisa umoya. Kodwa-ke, lapho iqhwa lincibilika ngokuphelele ehlobo, uquqaba lwamanzi lukwazi ukushisa lufinyelele kuma-degree angama-7, lumunce imisebe yelanga (ngoba alikho iqhwa eliyibonisayo). E-Arctic, amashalofu ezwekazi ajulile kakhulu, ukuze imisebe yelanga emunca amanzi ifinyelele phansi olwandle, incibilise iqhwa ebelilokhu likhona kusukela nge-Ice Age yokugcina.

I-Arctic

Izidumbu esizithola kuqhwa lwasolwandle olunazo amanani amakhulu emethani agciniwe, ngakho-ke ukuncibilika kwayo kuzokhipha ukukhishwa kwamakholomu amakhulu e-methane. IMethane inomphumela wokushisa izulu Izikhathi ezingama-23 ezinkulu kune-carbon dioxide. Uma lawo mapuleti e-methane ededelwa angene emkhathini, angaba nomthelela ekukhuphukeni kokushisa komhlaba wonke kuye kuma-degree angu-0,6 ngaphezulu ngo-2040.

Enye ingozi enkulu enhlalakahleni yomhlaba wethu ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ukufudumala kwe-Arctic nokunyamalala kweqhwa lasolwandle kuyimbangela isimo sezulu esibi kakhulu esike sabhekana naso eminyakeni eyisithupha edlule, ngobusika obubanda kakhulu noma obunesiphepho ezingxenyeni ezithile zaseYurophu naseNyakatho Melika nesimo sezulu esifudumele kakhulu kwezinye izindawo.

Ukusakaza kweJet

Kukhona ucingo ukusakaza kwejet okuyiwona ohlukanisa i-Arctic nezinqwaba zomoya ongaphansi ongaphansi. Yebo, lo mfula wejet uhamba kancane kunakuqala, ngoba umehluko wamazinga okushisa phakathi kwamanzi asezingeni eliphansi namanzi ase-Arctic anciphile. Iqiniso lokuthi ukusakazwa kwejet kuhamba kancane kuvumela ukuthi izinhlelo zezulu zezulu zesimo esisodwa zikhuliswe isikhathi esifana nokuthi isomiso, izikhukhula, amagagasi okushisa, njll.. Imiphumela emikhulu yokuhamba kancane kwalesi sikhathi yenzeka emazweni asezingeni eliphakathi nendawo enyakatho yezwe lapho kutholakala khona ipulazi elikhiqiza kakhulu emhlabeni. Uma lo mphumela uqhubeka, ukukhiqizwa kokudla komhlaba wonke kungaba sengozini enkulu, okuholele kwindlala, ukukhuphuka kwamanani okudla nezimpi.

Ukusakaza kweJet

Ibhande elihambisa olwandle

Umphumela wokugcina wokunyamalala kweqhwa ungaba nenzuzo ethile. khona ukujikeleza kancane kwe-thermohaline okungahanjiswa yimimoya, kepha kusukela ekusatshalalisweni kokushisa nemvula phezu kwezilwandle. Lokhu kusakazwa kwaziwa njenge ibhande lokuhambisa. Ngokuyisisekelo, kungumsinga lapho uquqaba lwamanzi ashisayo lusakazeka lubheke e-Arctic futhi lapho luphola phansi lube nosawoti futhi lube lukhulu. Lokhu kwanda kobuningi kubangela ukuthi uquqaba lwamanzi lucwile futhi lujikeleze futhi lubheke ezindaweni eziphansi. Lapho befika ePacific, bayafudumala futhi futhi bangabi manzi kakhulu, babuyela ngaphezulu. Yebo, endaweni lapho imizimba yamanzi icwila khona ngenxa yokubanda nokuminyana, alikho iqhwa elibonakale kusukela ngo-1998. Lokhu kwenza ibhande elihambayo liyeke ukusebenza, okwenza amanzi aphole kancane. Inzuzo engalethwa yilokhu ukuthi, ngasekupheleni kwekhulu leminyaka, i-United Kingdom, i-Ireland, i-Iceland kanye nogu lwaseFrance neNorway (ngaphezu kwenyakatho-ntshonalanga yeSpain) Zizokhuphuka ngo-2 ° C kuphela, uma kuqhathaniswa ne-4 ° C esabekayo emazweni amaningi aseYurophu. Lezi yizindaba ezinhle enyakatho-ntshonalanga yeYurophu, kepha hhayi eMelika eshisayo, ngoba ukulahleka kwamanje kuzokhuphula izinga lokushisa lamanzi e-Atlantic kuleyo ndawo futhi, ngenxa yalokho, namandla eziphepho.

ibhande elihambayo

Ikusasa elingenayo iqhwa

Le mininingwane ngemiphumela nemiphumela yokunyamalala kweqhwa ibaluleke kakhulu ngezizathu ezithile. Okokuqala ukuthi kukhombisa ubuze bezimpikiswano mayelana izinzuzo zezomnotho ezincibilikayo kuzodingeka ukuthi zenze lula ukuthuthwa kwezilwandle kanye nokuhlola uwoyela wasolwandle. Lesi simo singaletha ohulumeni izinzuzo eziyizigidigidi zamadola. Kodwa-ke, izindleko zokufudumala okwenza lokhu kwenzeke zibalelwa ezigidigidini zamadola.

Owesibili ukhombisa ukuthi ikusasa lokushisa komhlaba akunakwenziwa ngendlela eqondileUkubheka ukukhishwa kwe-CO2 kuphela, kepha ucabanga ukuthi kunezinto eziningi ezingenelela ekusheshiseni kokufudumala futhi zingagcina zibusa iphethini. Ngiwuphawulile umphumela wokunciphisa i-albedo nokukhipha i-methane ezintweni zasolwandle. Kungakho kungenzeka ukuthi, yize sinciphisa ukukhishwa kwe-CO2 emhlabeni jikelele, uhlelo alusebenzi ngendlela efanayo ngoba amagesi abamba ukushisa ayanda emkhathini futhi nenani lokushisa elimunceke nguMhlaba liyanda.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, kunemiphumela emibi ekunyamalaleni kweqhwa emhlabeni. Esinye sezixazululo ezingaba khona akukhona ukunciphisa inani le-CO2 ekhishelwa emkhathini, kepha kunalokho inqubo yokumunca i-CO2 ukuyisusa kumjikelezo. Kodwa-ke, umuntu ulahlekelwa esinye sezinto eziphilayo imvelo esidinga kakhulu iplanethi futhi esisisebenzisa ukuba sibe nokuphila esingaba nakho namuhla.

 


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.