Izimiso ze-thermodynamics

Entropy yendawo yonke

Emkhakheni we-physics, kunegatsha eliphethe ukutadisha ukuguqulwa okukhiqizwa ukushisa nomsebenzi ohlelweni. Imayelana ne-thermodynamics. Igatsha le-physics elibhekele ukutadisha konke ukuguquka, okuyimiphumela kuphela yenqubo ebandakanya izinguquko eziguqukayo zombuso zokushisa namandla ezingeni le-macro. Kuneziningana imigomo ye-thermodynamics okuyisisekelo ezicini eziningi ze-physics.

Ngakho-ke, sizokutshela kule ndatshana ukuthi yiziphi izimiso ze-thermodynamics nokuthi kubaluleke ngani.

Izici ze-thermodynamics

Imithetho ye-thermodynamics

Uma sihlaziya i-classical thermodynamics, sizothola ukuthi kusekelwe kumqondo wezinhlelo ezinkulu. Lolu hlelo luyingxenye yekhwalithi ebonakalayo noma yomqondo wokwehlukaniswa nemvelo yangaphandle. Ukuze ufunde kangcono uhlelo lwe-thermodynamic, kuhlala kucatshangwa ukuthi kuyisisindo somzimba lokho akuphazamiseki ukushintshaniswa kwamandla nohlelo lwangaphandle lwendalo.

Isimo sohlelo lwe-macroscopic ku-equilibrium sicaciswa ngamanani abizwa ngokuguquguquka kwe-thermodynamic. Siyazazi zonke lezi zinto eziguqukayo: ukushisa, ingcindezi, ivolumu nokwakheka kwamakhemikhali. Zonke lezi zinto eziguqukayo zichaza uhlelo nokulingana kwalo. Ngenxa yobumbano lwezicelo zomhlaba jikelele, izimpawu ezisemqoka ze-chemical thermodynamics sezisunguliwe. Ukusebenzisa la amayunithi kungasebenza kangcono futhi kuchaze imigomo ye-thermodynamics.

Nokho, kukhona igatsha le-thermodynamics elingafundi ukulingana, Esikhundleni salokho, baphethe ukuhlaziya izinqubo ze-thermodynamic ezibonakala kakhulu ngokungabi namandla okufeza izimo zokulingana ngendlela ezinzile.

Izimiso ze-thermodynamics

I-Entropy

Kunemigomo emi-4 ye-thermodynamics, efakwe kuhlu kusuka kuziro kuye kumaphuzu amathathu, le mithetho isiza ukuqonda yonke imithetho ye-physics endaweni yethu yonke futhi akunakwenzeka ukubona izenzakalo ezithile emhlabeni wethu. Baziwa futhi ngegama lemithetho ye-thermodynamics. Le mithetho inemvelaphi ehlukile. Ezinye zenziwe ngamafomula angaphambilini. Umthetho wokugcina owaziwa nge-thermodynamics ngumthetho onguziro. Le mithetho isebenza unomphela kukho konke ukuphenya nophenyo olwenziwa elabhoratri. Zibalulekile ekuqondeni ukuthi indawo yethu yonke isebenza kanjani. Sizochaza imigomo ye-thermodynamics ngamunye ngamunye.

Isimiso sokuqala

Lo mthetho uthi amandla awakwazi ukwakhiwa noma ukubhujiswa, angaguqulwa kuphela. Lokhu kwaziwa nangokuthi umthetho wokongiwa kwamandla. Empeleni, Lokhu kusho ukuthi kunoma yiluphi uhlelo lomzimba oluhlukaniswe nemvelo yalo, wonke amandla alo ayohlala efana. Yize amandla engaguqulwa abe ezinye izinhlobo zamandla ngandlela thile, isibalo sawo wonke la mandla sihlala sifana.

Sizonikeza isibonelo ukuze siyiqonde kangcono. Ukulandela lo mgomo, uma sinikela inani elithile lamandla ohlelweni lomzimba ngendlela yokushisa, singakwazi ukubala amandla aphelele ngokuthola umehluko phakathi kokukhuphuka kwamandla angaphakathi nomsebenzi owenziwe uhlelo kanye nokuzungezile. Lokho wukuthi, umehluko phakathi kwamandla onawo uhlelo ngaleso sikhathi nomsebenzi owenzile kuzoba ngamandla ashisayo akhishwe.

Isimiso sesibili

Uma kunesikhathi esanele, wonke amasistimu ekugcineni azolahlekelwa ibhalansi yawo. Lesi simiso sibizwa nangokuthi umthetho we-entropy. Ingafingqwa kanjena. Inani le-entropy endaweni yonke lizokhuphuka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. I-entropy yesistimu iyinkomba yokukala izinga lokuphazamiseka. Ngamanye amazwi, Umgomo wesibili we-thermodynamics usitshela ukuthi uma uhlelo selufinyelele ezingeni lokulingana, kuzokhuphula izinga lokuphazamiseka ohlelweni. Lokhu kungasho ukuthi uma sinikeza uhlelo isikhathi esanele, ekugcineni luzogcina lungalingani.

Lona ngumthetho onesibopho sokuchaza ukungaphenduki kwezinye zezinto ezibonakalayo. Isibonelo, kuyasisiza ukuthi sichaze ukuthi kungani iphepha iphepha selishisiwe alikwazi ukubuyela esimeni salo sokuqala. Kulolu hlelo olwaziwa njengephepha nomlilo, ukungezwani kuye kwanda ngendlela yokuthi akukwazi ukubuyela emsukeni wayo. Lo mthetho wethula umsebenzi we-entropy state, okuthi esimweni sezinhlelo zomzimba ubhekele ukumela izinga lokuphazamiseka nokuphelelwa ngamandla kwalo okungenakugwemeka.

Ukuqonda umthetho wesibili we-thermodynamics sizonikeza isibonelo. Uma sishisa inani elithile lendaba bese sibeka ibhola kanye nomlotha ovelayo, siyabona ukuthi kunodaba oluncane kunasesimweni sokuqala. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi udaba seluphenduke amagesi lokho Azikwazi ukutholwa futhi kufanele zisakaze futhi ziminyana. Le yindlela esibona ngayo ukuthi kusimo sokuqala bekukhona okungenani i-entropy kunesimo sesibili.

Isimiso sesithathu

imigomo ye-thermodynamics

Lapho kufinyelelwa ku-zero ngokuphelele, inqubo yohlelo lomzimba iyama. Iqanda eliphelele yizinga lokushisa eliphansi kakhulu esingalifinyelela. Kulokhu, sikala izinga lokushisa ngama-degree Kelvin. Ngale ndlela, kungashiwo ukuthi izinga lokushisa nokupholisa kubangela ukuthi ukungena kwesistimu kube zero. Kulezi zimo, kufana nokufana okucacile. Lapho ifinyelela ku-zero ngokuphelele, inqubo yohlelo lomzimba iyama. Ngakho-ke, i-entropy izoba nenani eliphansi kepha elihlala njalo.

Ukufinyelela kuziro ngokuphelele noma cha kuwumsebenzi olula. Inani eliphelele le-zero le-Kelvin degree lingu-zero, kepha uma silisebenzisa ku- Isilinganiso sesilinganiso sokushisa seCelsius, ngu -273,15 degrees.

Umthetho we-Zero

Lo mthetho owokugcina wacabanga futhi wathi uma u-A = C no-B = C, khona-ke u-A = B. Lokhu kusungula imithetho eyisisekelo neyisisekelo yeminye imithetho emithathu ye-thermodynamics. Yigama elithatha umthetho wokulingana okushisayo. Ngamanye amagama, uma uhlelo nezinye izinhlelo zisezilinganisweni ezishisayo ngokuzimela, kufanele zibe ku-thermal equilibrium. Lo mthetho uvumela ukusungulwa kwemigomo yokushisa. Lo mgomo usetshenziselwa ukuqhathanisa amandla okushisa wezinto ezimbili ezihlukile esimweni sokulingana okushisayo. Uma lezi zinto ezimbili zisesilinganisweni esishisayo, zizoba sezingeni lokushisa elifanayo ngokungadingekile. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma bobabili beguqula ibhalansi elishisayo lohlelo lwesithathu, bazophinde bathintane.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemigomo ye-thermodynamics yezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.