Imephu yesimo sendawo

ijika lezinga

Kokubili kochwepheshe kanye nanoma yiluphi uhlobo lomuntu, a imephu yesimo sendawo kuyithuluzi elikhulu. Futhi luhlobo lwemephu ukusetshenziswa kwayo kukhulu futhi kunenani elikhulu lemikhakha kokubili kwisayensi nasekuhleleni kwendawo. Izici zayo eziyinhloko zilusizo kubantu abaningi.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici, izinsiza kanye nenani elikhulu lolwazi olungatholakala ebalazweni lesimo sendawo.

Izici eziyinhloko

izakhi zemephu yesimo sendawo

Imephu yesimo sendawo ayiyona nje into ebonakalisa ukukhululeka kobuso bomhlaba. Into ejwayelekile kakhulu ukuthi ukumelwa kwalokho okwenziwe endaweni ethize. Khumbula ukuthi le ndawo imelwe ukukalwa. Umehluko omkhulu ngezinhlelo zesimo sendawo yilokho indawo ezethula kimi ibanzi kakhulu. Kwezinye izikhathi, amabalazwe we-topographic wezifundazwe, izifunda, ngisho namazwe kanye namazwekazi angakhiwa.

Imigqa yentaba yemephu yesimo sendawo iyingxenye ebalulekile yanoma iluphi uhlobo lwemephu. Ngenxa yolayini bolayini ungazi ukwakheka kobuso bomhlaba nokuthambekela kwawo. Kulolu hlobo lwamamephu, kusetshenziswa izimpawu ezahlukahlukene ukuhlukanisa izakhi ezahlukahlukene. Ngenxa yazo zonke lezi zimpawu nemibala ingahlukaniswa imifula, izintaba, izigodi nezinye izici nezakhi zezwe.

Amamephu we-topographic afaka imininingwane eminingi ewusizo mayelana namadolobha, imigwaqo, amabhuloho, amadamu, ukwakhiwa kwabantu noma izintambo zikagesi, phakathi kwezinye izinto eziningi. Namuhla, kunabashicileli abaningi nezinsizakalo zomphakathi ezinikezela ngamamephu ezindawo. Ngokuya ngesikhungo noma umshicileli, bangaba amamephu wesimo sendawo yezindawo ezinkulu kakhulu zezifunda ezithile.

Izinto zebalazwe lesimo sendawo

ibalazwe lomhlaba

Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izinto eziyinhloko okufanele zifakwe yimephu yesimo sendawo. Ukuze kubhekwe kanjalo, izinto eziningana kufanele zifakwe ngendlela ephoqelekile. Sizobona ukuthi yimaphi amaphuzu abalulekile futhi abalulekile okufanele avele kunoma iyiphi imephu yesimo sendawo:

  • Isikali esisetshenzisiwe.
  • Ukuqondiswa kwendawo esenyakatho
  • GPS
  • Ukuqondiswa kwenyakatho kazibuthe
  • Zonke izimpawu ezisetshenzisiwe
  • Ubudlelwano obukhona nezinye izindiza
  • Umbhali wemephu noma inhlangano eyidalile
  • Unyaka wokuchazwa

Lezi yizinto eziyinhloko ezingaphumeleli kumephu yesimo sendawo. Siyazi ukuthi inani elikhulu lemininingwane liqoqwa kulolu hlobo lwemephu. Ngiyethemba, lonke lolu lwazi kufanele luhunyushwe kahle. Sizoqoqa amaphuzu asemqoka ukubheka uhlobo lolwazi olungatholakala kulawa mabalazwe:

  • Inani labantu nezakhiwo eziqhelile. Kumephu yesimo sendawo, ulwazi lungatholakala ngezikhungo zabantu ezikhona esifundeni esithile nazo zonke izakhiwo ezikude kunaleyo eshiwo emadolobheni.
  • Izindlela zokuxhumana. Le mizila yezokuxhumana ihlukaniswe yaba yimigwaqo, imigwaqo emikhulu, ojantshi, njll.
  • I-Hydrography. Ihlobene nenani lamanzi noma ukuba khona kwemifula, amachibi, amadamu, njll.
  • Kungukungalingani kwendawo nokuphakama lapho kutholakala khona izindawo ezimelwe ebalazweni.
  • Imingcele yokuphatha yezindawo. Hhayi imingcele yemvelo kuphela eboniswayo, kodwa futhi neyokuphatha.
  • Izimila. Alukho uhlu oluningiliziwe lwezinhlobo zezitshalo ezikhona, kepha izinhlobo eziyinhloko.
  • Ukudidiyela: Ziyadingeka ukuthola indawo yezindawo ezimelwe.

Incazelo yezakhi zemephu yesimo sendawo

imephu yesimo sendawo

Sizochaza ngendlela eningiliziwe okuyizinto eziqondene nemephu yesimo sendawo.

  • Amaleveli ezingeni: yilabo abanesibopho sokukhombisa ukuphakama kwendawo. Ziyizimpawu ezimele kakhulu zalolu hlobo lwemephu. Imigqa yentaba iphethe ukujoyina amaphuzu asezingeni elifanayo ngaphezu kogu lolwandle. Ngakho-ke, azoba amaphuzu anezingqimba ezifanayo.
  • Izimpawu ezijwayelekile: Ngaphezu kwemigqa yokunquma nentaba, imininingwane enkulu iyakhonjiswa. Lonke lolu lwazi lukhonjiswa kusuka kwizimpawu nezimpawu ukumela imifula, izindawo ezisemadolobheni noma amaphuzu athakazelisayo. Imibala nayo isetshenziselwa imisebenzi ehlukahlukene. Isibonelo, umbala onsundu uvame ukusetshenziselwa ukukhombisa izindawo eziphakeme kakhulu. Okuhlaza kusetshenziselwa ukukhombisa izindawo zehlathi noma amadlelo amakhulu nokuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ukukhombisa amanzi. Eminye imigwaqo nezindlela zihlukaniswe kahle neminye imibala.
  • Isampula curves: ubude obuphakathi kwemigqa emibili yontaba busetshenziswa kulolu hlobo lwemephu. Lokhu kwaziwa njengokulingana. Ukubona umehluko ophakeme ngokucace bha, umugqa ojiyile usetshenziswa yonke imigqa engu-4-5 yomugqa obizwa ngokuthi i-master curve. Isetshenziselwa ukukhombisa ukuphakama nokubala kangcono ukulingana.
  • Isilinganiso: siyazi ukuthi iqiniso limelelwa kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lwemephu. Ngokusobala, bonke osayizi bezinto nezinto abakwazi ukumelwa ngezinga lazo langempela. Ngakho-ke, isikali siyasetshenziswa. Isilinganiso esivame kakhulu esivame ukusetshenziswa yi-1: 50.000. Lokhu kusitshela ukuthi iyunithi emephini ingamayunithi ayi-50.000 empeleni. Isibonelo, amasentimitha amabili ebalazweni abe yikhilomitha elilodwa empeleni.
  • Kusalindile: Umthambeko ubuhlobo obukhona phakathi kokungalingani okufanele sikunqobe nebanga elikhona endaweni evundlile.

Ukusetshenziswa okuyinhloko

Sizobona ukuthi yikuphi ukusetshenziswa okuyinhloko okunikezwa kumamephu ezindawo. Zingaba nenani elikhulu lokusetshenziswa futhi zingasetshenziswa yinoma ngubani ngezinhloso ezahlukahlukene futhi kalula. Ukusetshenziswa okuvame kakhulu kunjengokulandelayo:

  • Ukuhlelwa kwendawo
  • Izakhiwo ezinkulu
  • Isayensi yomhlaba
  • Ubunjiniyela bogesi
  • Ukumayini
  • Izintaba nezinye izinto zokungcebeleka
  • Izakhiwo ezinkulu
  • Ubunjiniyela bomphakathi

Kusukela kulolu hlobo lwamamephu, amasistimu wolwazi ngokuma komhlaba amisiwe ngokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe. Lezi zinhlelo ziqoqa inani elikhulu lolwazi ngendlela yezendlalelo ezisebenzela ukwazi inani elikhulu lolwazi mayelana nendawo ethile. Isibonelo, ukusetshenziswa komhlaba kwendawo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemephu yesimo sendawo nezici zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.