I-Crystallography

Ngaphakathi kokuma komhlaba kunegatsha eligxile ekutadisheni udaba lwekristalline olwakha ngokwemvelo. Imayelana ne- ikristalo. Kuyisayensi ebhekene nokutadisha imithetho elawula ukwakheka kwamakristalu, izakhiwo zawo zejometri, amakhemikhali kanye nezinto ezibonakalayo. Njengoba kunezici ezahlukahlukene zamakristalu, i-crystallography ihlukaniswe ngamagatsha amaningi.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela zonke izici, izifundo nokubaluleka kwe-crystallography.

Amagatsha we-crystallography

ikristalo

Njengoba kuyisayensi efunda ukwakheka kwamakristalu nazo zonke izakhiwo zawo zejometri, zamakhemikhali nezomzimba, amagatsha ahlukene ahlukaniswa:

  • I-crystallography yeJiyomethri. Igxila ekutadisheni ukwakheka kwejometri.
  • I-Chemical crystallography noma i-Chemical crystallography. Njengoba igama liphakamisa ukuthi ligxile kumakhemikhali wamakristalu.
  • I-crystallography yomzimba noma i-crystallography ebonakalayo. Igxile ekutadisheni izakhiwo ezibonakalayo zamakristalu.

Engxenyeni ye-geometric crystallography, i-morphology yangaphandle yamakristalu nokulinganisa kwezingxenye zawo kuyafundwa. Ukulinganisa kwamanethiwekhi akha i-crystal nakho kuyabhekwa. Ngakho-ke, akuyona nje uhlobo lwesayensi ye-visu kuphela, kepha kudingeka nezibonakhulu ezinamandla. Lapho udaba lwe-crystalline luphathwa ngombono we-macroscopic, kufanele kuthathwe njengendawo ehambisanayo futhi eqhubekayo. Inezici ze-anisotropic ne-symmetric. Kungaleso sikhathi-ke lapho ufunda ukulinganisa kwamakristalu kufanele kuthathwe njengendawo ehambisanayo nehlukanisayo enezici ezihlukile ngokuya ngemvelaphi yokwakheka kwayo.

Lapho sifunda nge-crystallography yamakhemikhali esigxila kuyo ukuhlelwa kwama-athomu endabeni yamakristalu. Lokho wukuthi, kugxile ekutadisheni ukwakheka kwangaphakathi nokwangaphandle kwekristalu. Kulokhu, kuyadingeka ukwethula umqondo wekristalu langempela ngoba kuyadingeka ukucubungula ukungapheleli okungenzeka ukuthi kunakho, ngokuphambene nalokho okwenzeka nge-geometric crystallography. Kungashiwo ukuthi i-crystallography yigatsha elitholakala ekutadisheni kwamaminerali.

Ku-geology kufundwa ukwakheka nokwakheka kwamatshe namaminerali. Ingxenye egxile ocwaningweni lwezimbiwa kanye nezimbiwa. Njengoba amaminerali amaningi engamakristalu ayiqiniso ngokuya ngemvelaphi yawo, izalwa ngegatsha le-crystallography.

Ekugcineni, lapho sifunda i-crystallography ebonakalayo sigxila ezintweni ezibonakalayo zamakristalu. Lapho lezi zakhiwo zomzimba sezifundisiwe, kwenziwa umzamo wokuhlobene nokwakheka kwamakhemikhali nokwakheka kwawo. Ngale ndlela, kungenzeka ukuthola imininingwane kuyo yonke i-crystal.

I-Mineralogy esetshenzisiwe

I-crystallography yejometri

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, i-mineralogy yingxenye yesayensi ngaphakathi kwe-geology ebhekele ukutadisha amaminerali. Inobudlelwano obuseduze ne-crystallography ngoba ifunda ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali, ukwakheka kwekristalu, izakhiwo zomzimba nezimo zofuzo zombili amakristalu namanye amaminerali.

I-mineralogy Zingahlukaniswa zibe ngamaminerali, amakhemikhali ngokomzimba nangamandla kazibuthe. Kukhona nezinye izinhlobo ze-mineralogy esetshenzisiwe njengokunquma, i-mineralogy echazayo kanye ne-mineralogenesis.

I-Chemistry ibhekele ukutadisha izakhiwo zamakhemikhali zamaminerali. Engxenyeni ye-mineralogy ebonakalayo, igxila ekutadisheni kwezici zemishini, kagesi, ezibonakalayo nezikazibuthe zamaminerali ahlukahlukene.

Khumbula ukuthi i-mineralogy yazalwa njengesayensi esetshenzisiwe ngaphakathi kwe-geology. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo bekuzinikele ngokuphelele kumadiphozithi amadiphozi abewusizo kumuntu. Ukutadisha ukuba lusizo kwalowo nalowo nokuthuthuka kwawo okuphelele kusukela ezikhathini zokuqala kwenza isici esichazayo samaminerali amasha atholwa okuthile okubalulekile. Ngale ndlela imisebenzi yokuqala ephathelene namaminerali imelwe. Ngesikhathi sika-Aristotle iNcwadi Yamatshe yayikhona ngo-315 BC. I-Rome de l'Isle ne-Haüy imithetho ngezici zodaba lwe-crystalline kuvunyelwe ukuthuthukisa kabanzi izindlela zokunquma kwe-mineralogical.

Futhi ukuthi izinqumo zakudala zazisuselwa encazelweni yezakhiwo ezibonakalayo ezibonakala kakhulu futhi ezingabonakala kumaminerali. Konke lokhu kucatshangelwa ukuthi akudingekile ukusebenzisa amadivayisi ayinkimbinkimbi futhi ayinkimbinkimbi ukugqamisa izici zamaminerali noma i-crystal okukhulunywa ngayo. Kamuva, ngokusebenzisa imicroscope ye-polarization, inqubekela phambili enkulu yavunyelwa kubuchule bokuzimisela kwamaminerali kanye nekristalu.

Ukwakheka ku-crystallography kanye ne-mineralogy

Ukutadisha nokuzimisela kokwakhiwa kwamakhemikhali kubalulekile kuzo zonke izifundo ze-crystallography kanye ne-mineralogy. Noma kunjalo, lokhu kwenziwa kwamakhemikhali kuphela akwanele ukukhomba wonke amaminerali namakristalu akhona. Futhi kukhona izingqikithi ezithile ezingashintshaniswa njengama-micas, ama-chlorite, ama-garnet nama-zeolites namanye amaminerali ahlukile ahambelana nezinhlanganisela zokwakheka kwamakhemikhali okufanayo. Isibonelo, sinedayimane ne-graphite, engamaminerali ahlukile kepha enokwakheka okufanayo kwamakhemikhali. Kukhona ne-aragonite ne-calcite.

Ukuzalwa kwesayensi ebizwa nge-crystallography kubhekwa njengesikhathi lapho uStensen kuveza ukungaguquguquki kwama-dihedral engeli wobuso bamakristalu e-quartz. Ukusuka lapho ukutholwa okulandelayo kuba okujwayelekile. Futhi ukuthi kube nokutholwa okuningi kwezakhi namathuba okuhlaziywa kwamakhemikhali okwadala izimpikiswano eziningi emhlabeni we-crystallography.

I-crystal ayilutho ngaphandle kokuqina esimweni samakristalu ukuthi ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile zokwakheka kuvela ngesimo se-polyhedron. Esinye sezici eziyinhloko ze-crystal ukuthi izokhawulelwa ubuso be-crystalline.

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zengilazi, ake sibone ukuthi ziyini:

  • I-crystal eyodwa: ichazwa njengekristalu eyodwa. Ngamunye wamakristalu we-garnet akha i-crystal eyodwa.
  • Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Crystal: ichazwa njengeqembu lamakristalu amancane akhula ndawonye. Zingavela ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene.
  • Isakhiwo se-Crystal: Imayelana nokuhlelwa ngezikhathi ezithile noku-odiwe kobukhulu obuthathu esikhaleni esakhiwe ngama-athomu aqinile esimweni samakristalu.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-crystallography nokuthi ifundani.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.