Carbon emvelweni

Carbon emvelweni

Emhlabeni wethu kunamagesi ahlukahlukene nezinto ezibalulekile empilweni. Inani lalezi zinto namagesi lincike ekusebenzeni ngakunye nemisebenzi eyenzeka emhlabeni wonke. Namuhla sizokhuluma ngakho ikhabhoni emvelweni. I-Carbon itholakala ezimeni ezahlukahlukene emhlabeni wethu njengamafutha, ama-graphite, idayimane, phakathi kwabanye. Kuyinto yamakhemikhali ebeka isithupha etafuleni lezinsuku futhi ayiyona insimbi.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nokubaluleka kwekhabhoni emvelweni.

Izici eziyinhloko

Ukubaluleka kwekhabhoni

I-Carbon iyinto yamakhemikhali e-tetravalent. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kuyaphunyuka ekusunguleni izibopho zamakhemikhali ezi-4 zama-electron abiwe noma ama-covalent bonds. Yinto enenala enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni. Inala yayo ilele ukwehluka kwayo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ikhona ekwakhekeni kwama-organic compounds futhi inekhono elihlukile lokwakha ama-polymers emazingeni okushisa atholakala emhlabeni wethu. Le yindlela esebenza ngayo njengengxenye kuzo zonke izinhlobo zokuphila ezaziwayo.

Ikhabhoni emvelweni itholakala njengengxenye yamakhemikhali engahlanganisi nezinye izinhlobo. Ngokwengxenye enkulu kuhlanganiswe namakhemikhali ekhabhoni amakhemikhali afana ne-calcium carbonate namanye amakhompiyutha ku-oyela negesi yemvelo. Ingatholakala futhi ngesimo samaminerali ahlukahlukene njenge amalahle, i-lignite ne-peat. Okubaluleke kakhulu kunekhabhoni ukuthi ikhona kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo.

Itholakala kuphi ikhabhoni emvelweni?

Ikhabhoni emadwaleni nasemaminerali

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ikhabhoni emvelweni itholakala kuzo zonke izinhlobo zokuphila futhi ikhona kuzo zonke izinhlobo zamakristalu: idayimane, i-graphite ne-fullerene. Singabona futhi ezinye izinhlobo zamaminerali amorphous ngamalahle afana ne-lignite, amalahle, i-peat, namafomu oketshezi njengezinhlobonhlobo zamafutha negesi njengegesi yemvelo. Sizoklelisa ngayinye yazo bese siyayichaza.

Amafomu we-crystalline

  • Umsizi: Siqinile esinombala omnyama futhi sine-metallic sheen emelana nokushisa. Inesakhiwo se-crystalline njengama-athomu ekhabhoni axhunyaniswe ndawonye ngamabhondi ayisithupha. La ma-athomu ahlanganisiwe akha amashidi.
  • IDayimane: umsindo onzima kakhulu okwazi ukuvumela ukukhanya kudlule kuwo. Ama-athomu ekhabhoni edayimane ahlanganiswe ngendlela ye-tetrahedral.
  • Ama-Fullerenes: yizinhlobo zamangqamuzana zekhabhoni ezakha izigaxa ezinama-athomu amaningi kanti ezinye ziseyindilinga ezifana namabhola ebhola.

Amafomu ama-Amorphous

Kulokhu, ama-athomu ekhabhoni awahlanganisi noma akhe isakhiwo esi-oda ngendlela engafanele. Bajwayele ukuba nokungcola okumbalwa nezinye izinto. Ake sihlaziye ukuthi ziyini:

  • I-Anthracite: Yimaminerali endala kakhulu yamalahle ekhona. Umsuka wawo ubuyele ekuguqulweni kwamatshe okutholwe umphumela wokushisa, ukucindezela kanye nokusebenza kwamakhemikhali oketshezi emvelweni. Zakhiwa ikakhulukazi esikhathini seCarboniferous.
  • Amalahle: ngamalahle amaminerali akhiwe edwaleni le-sedimentary lemvelaphi engokwemvelo. Ukwakheka kwenzeka ngesikhathi sePaleozoic futhi kumnyama ngombala. Inokuqukethwe okuphezulu kwezinto ze-bituminous.
  • I-Lignite: Yilahle lamalahle ezimbiwa phansi elenziwa ngembiza ngokucindezelwa okuphezulu kwengcindezi.
  • Peat: Kungumbhalo wemvelaphi ephilayo ovela enkathini ye-Quaternary futhi osanda kwenzeka kakhulu kunamalahle wangaphambilini. Imvamisa ihlukaniswa ngokuba nombala ophuzi onsundu futhi ubukhulu bayo buyisiponji ngobuningi obuphansi. Kusuka emfucumfucwini yezitshalo.
  • Uwoyela negesi yemvelo: zingamafutha asendulo aziwa kakhulu emhlabeni wonke. Akhiwe ngengxube yezinto eziphilayo, iningi lawo kungama-hydrocarbon. Lawa ma-hydrocarbon akhiwa ngokubola kwebhaktheriya kwe-anaerobic kwezinto eziphilayo. Ngalesi sizathu, ukwakheka kwayo kwenzeka enhlabathini engaphansi ekujuleni okukhulu nangaphansi kwezimo ezikhethekile zomzimba nezamakhemikhali. Le yinqubo eyenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi edlule.

Umjikelezo we-biogeochemical wekhabhoni ngokwemvelo

Ikhabhoni emvelweni ikhona

Umjikelezo wekhabhoni inqubo ethile futhi ebalulekile yokuphila emhlabeni wethu. Imayelana nokushintshaniswa kwalo gesi kulo lonke iplanethi. Kungashintshaniswa phakathi i-biosphere, umkhathi, i-lithosphere ne-hydrosphere. Ulwazi lwale nqubo yokujikeleza kwekhabhoni yilokho okusisizayo ukukhombisa isenzo sabantu kulolu hlobo lomjikelezo. Kungakho sinemininingwane efanelekile yase-Iberia ngesenzo abantu abanaso ekushintsheni kwesimo sezulu emhlabeni.

Futhi ukuthi ikhabhoni iyakwazi ukuzungeza phakathi kwezilwandle kanye nawo wonke uquqaba lwamanzi. Ingazungeza futhi phakathi kwenhlabathi engaphansi, umhlabathi, umkhathi kanye ne-biosphere. Ubamba iqhaza ezinkambisweni ezinjenge-photosynthesis lapho izitshalo zibamba khona ikhabhoni etholakala emkhathini ukukhiqiza umoya-mpilo ngokuphendula kwamakhemikhali. Le photosynthesis ivumela isikhutha namanzi okulamula ngamandla elanga ne-chlorophyll ekhiqizwa izitshalo ukukhiqiza ama-carbohydrate noma ushukela. Umoya-mpilo uwumkhiqizo kadoti walokhu kuphendula.

ICarbon a ikhona futhi ezinqubweni zemvelo njengokuphefumula nokubola. Lezi zinqubo zebhayoloji zinesibopho sokukhipha isikhutha emvelweni ngendlela yesikhutha noma imethane. IMethane iyohlala ikhona lapho kukhona ukubola lapho umoya ungekho.

Ikhabhoni emvelweni idlala indima ebaluleke kakhulu kuzinqubo zokwakheka komhlaba. Lezi zinqubo zokwakheka komhlaba zenzeka njengomphumela wokuhamba kwesikhathi. Kulapha lapho i-carbon ngokusebenzisa ukubola kwe-anaerobic ingaguqulwa ibe ngamafutha asezingeni elifana nowoyela, igesi yemvelo namalahle. Ngaphezu kwalokho, le khabhoni ingaba ngeyayo futhi ibe yingxenye yamanye amaminerali namatshe.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngokubaluleka kwekhabhoni emvelweni.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.