Ihlathi elinamanzi

Phakathi kwezinhlobo zamahlathi sithola i- ihlathi le-flatwood, equkethe izihlahla eziluhlaza njalo ihlathi elinamanzi, eyakhiwe izihlahla ezinqabayo. Ukwakhiwa kwezitshalo izihlahla zazo ezilahlekelwa amaqabunga minyaka yonke kuye ngamazinga okushisa nesimo sezulu. Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamahlathi ahlabayo kuye ngobubanzi lapho sikhona.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, izinhlobo nezinhlobonhlobo zehlathi eliqinile.

Izici eziyinhloko

Kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamahlathi ahlukanisayo kuye ngobubanzi nesimo sezulu esithandwayo. Kunamahlathi aphakathi nendawo asezindaweni ezishisayo. Izindawo ezishisayo zivame ukubizwa amahlathi aqothulayo noma amahlathi ahlabayo. Kokubili okunqamulelayo nokunqumayo kungabhekwa njengokufana. Womabili la magama abhekisele ekuweni kwamakhasi minyaka yonke.

Isici esiyinhloko sehlathi eliqothulayo yi ukulahleka kwamaqabunga phakathi nesikhathi esinciphisa kakhulu unyaka. Ngezinhlobo ezipholile umkhawulo omkhulu okufanele amaqabunga alahlekelwe kuwo ibhalansi yamandla. Lokhu noma kwenzeka esikhathini esiqala ekwindla kuye ebusika. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izinhlobo zamahlathi asezindaweni ezishisayo anomkhawulo futhi kungukulinganiswa kwamanzi. Kulapho imvula ingumkhawulo wokukhula kwamaqabunga ngenxa yesikhathi esomile kakhulu.

Inhlabathi yehlathi eliqabulayo Imvamisa zijulile futhi zivundile kakhulu ngenxa yomnikelo owenziwa ngezikhathi ezithile udoti. Udoti wakhiwa yilo lonke lelo nani lamaqabunga awela esihlahleni futhi ahlukaniswa abe yinto evundile ephilayo. Le nkunkuma isiza ukugcina umswakama omnene namazinga ezakhamzimba enhlabathini.

Ihlathi elipholile libanda eNyakatho Melika naseningizimu ye-Argentina, eChile, eYurophu, e-Asia nasempumalanga ye-Australia. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amahlathi ane-asidi yiwo asatshalaliswa kulo lonke elaseMelika elishisayo, e-Afrika nase-Indomalasia. Ukwakheka kwezitshalo zamahlathi ane-asidi kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zokukhululeka lapho sizithola sisuka emathafeni siye ezigodini nasezintabeni.

Emahlathini asezingeni eliphansi asenyakatho, izinhlobo ezinjenge UQuercus, uFagus, uBetula, uCastanea noCarpinus. Uma siya ezindaweni ezishisayo, izinhlobo zeQuercus neNothofagus zigcwele kanye nezinhlobo ze-legume, bignonia kanye ne-malvaceae. Izilwane ezihlukanisa ihlathi elipholile elinamakhaza lihlanganisa impisi, inyamazane, inyamazane, ibhere nenyathi yaseYurophu. Ngenkathi indawo eshisayo kukhona izinhlobo zezinkukhu, izinkawu nezinyoka.

Okokugcina, kufanele kuthiwe amahlathi asezingeni eliphansi anezimo zezulu ezihamba phambili zezwekazi nezolwandle ezinezinkathi ezine eziphawulwe kakhulu. Ezingxenyeni ezibandayo zesimo sezulu isimo sezulu siyabanda. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ihlathi eline-esidi linesimo sezulu esishisayo esinezikhathi ezimbili eziphawulwe kakhulu, inkathi eyomile nenkathi yemvula.

Izakhi zehlathi eziqothulayo

Ukuphelelwa yisikhathi kweLeaf

Sizohlaziya ukuthi yiziphi izakhi ezakha ihlathi elihlwanyelayo. Into yokuqala ukuphela kwamakhasi. Asikho isitshalo esingapheli esinomjikelezo wokuphila weminyaka eminingana esineqabunga elihlala isikhathi eside. Amaqabunga futhi avuselelwa njalo kwezinye izinhlobo ezithile amaqabunga alahlekile ngesikhathi esifanayo. Lezi ezihlala ziluhlaza ziyalahleka kancane kancane njengoba zivuselelwa.

Inqubo yokuwa kwamaqabunga ikhawulelwe emikhawulweni ethile yezemvelo njengokushoda kwamanzi noma ibhalansi yamandla aphansi. Lezi zimo ezingezinhle zemvelo zingaphoqa isihlahla ukuthi sinciphise imetabolism yaso ibe sezingeni eliphansi. Elinye lamasu asetshenziswa ngempumelelo ukuze uphile nge-metabolism ephansi ukukhipha amaqabunga ngokuphelele noma ingxenye.

Kumele kushiwo ukuthi amaqabunga yizikhungo zemvelo zesitshalo lapho i-photosynthesis, ukujuluka kanye nokuphefumula kwesitshalo okwenzeka khona. Ngenxa ye-stomata, amanzi amaningi angakhishwa ngendlela yomphunga wamanzi. Enye yezinkinga ezinkulu zezitshalo ehlobo Ukujuluka okweqile ngenxa yokulahleka kwamanzi namazinga okushisa aphezulu. Amanzi ayavuza nge-stomata ngesikhathi senqubo ye-photosynthesis.

Ngakho-ke, ngokulahlekelwa cishe amahlamvu amaningi, imisebenzi ehlukahlukene yemetabolism iyakhanselwa futhi ukusinda kwabo kwehliswe kwaba ubuncane. Ukulahleka kwamaqabunga kwenzeka ngesikhathi sokuwa ehlathini elihlwanyelayo nasesikhathini samakhowe ehlathini elishisayo elishisayo.

Amasongo okukhula

Ihlathi laseMpumalanga elihlasimulisayo

Amasongo okukhula ezinye izinto ezibalulekile. Ngesikhathi lapho kunemikhawulo ehlukahlukene yezemvelo kukhona ukwakheka kwezicubu ezintsha eziyeka ngokuphelele ukuze kuncishiswe imetabolism. Isibonelo, ukwakheka kwezicubu zokuqhuba ezifana I-xylem ne-phloem esiqwini sezitshalo ezindaweni ezinesimo sezulu esipholile ngesikhathi sasebusika. Kulapha lapho singabona khona ukuthi entwasahlobo imisebenzi yezicubu iqala phansi futhi yakhe amangqamuzana amasha aqhubayo. Lo msebenzi udala izindandatho zokukhula ezingabonakala lapho kwenziwa ingxenye yesiphambano esiqwini.

Njengoba lokhu kwenzeka njalo ezindaweni ezipholile, iringi ngayinye yokukhula ihambelana nesikhathi sokubambezeleka nokusebenza konyaka. Ngale ndlela, iminyaka yesihlahla endaweni epholile inganqunywa ngokubala izindandatho zokukhula. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ehlathini elishisayo elibandayo ungazibona lezi zindandatho zokukhula kodwa akuhambelani nezinguquko zonyaka. Lezi zinguquko akulula kangako ukuzilinganisela ngoba zincike enkathini eyomile noma emvuleni enkulu.

Imvamisa

Ekugcineni, inhlabathi yehlathi elipholile elinamanzi avundile futhi ajulile. Lokhu kungenxa yokulethwa kukadoti ngezikhathi ezithile okubola nokwakha izinto eziphilayo ezivundile. Le nhlabathi ilungele ukuvuselelwa nokwakhiwa komhlaba omusha.

Inhlabathi yasemahlathini ama-coniferous ahlukanisiwe aphethwe yizinhlobo ze-podzol. Le nhlabathi ayinazo izakhamzimba ezinokwakheka kwe-permafrost kwezinye izindawo ezingakhiphi kahle. Imvamisa le nhlabathi yakhiwa ngenxa yamazinga okushisa aphansi akhona unyaka wonke kanye nomswakama omncane otholakalayo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngehlathi eliqothulayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.