Idamu i-Aswan

idamu eliphakeme

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngenye yezakhiwo ezibaluleke kakhulu zobunjiniyela ezenzeke ngekhulu lama-XNUMX. Imayelana ne- idamu le-aswan. Ukwakhiwa kwawo kwaqala ngo-1960 futhi kwaphela ngo-1970. Kwakuyiminyaka eyi-10 yokwakhiwa okudingekayo ukunciphisa izikhukhula zaminyaka yonke kanye nesomiso esike senzeka eGibhithe. Namuhla, iDamu lase-Aswan seliphenduke umthombo wokuphakelwa kukagesi iGibhithe elingathuthuka ngalo.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nemvelaphi yedamu i-Aswan.

Izici eziyinhloko

Uma sikhuluma ngeDamu lase-Aswan High sikhuluma ngeDamu Eliphezulu lase-Aswan. Lokho wukuthi, kukhona amadamu amabili abizwa ngokuthi aphezulu naphansi. Okubi kuncane kakhulu ngosayizi futhi phambilini banesikhathi. Ngokubona ukuthi ukuwa bekungekho usayizi owanele ukukwazi ukuqeda izinkinga zezikhukhula nesomiso sonyaka, idamu elikhulu i-Aswan lakhiwa. Futhi ukuthi idamu i-Aswan lilinganisa amamitha ayi-3.600 ubude futhi lifinyelela kumamitha ayi-111 ukuphakama. Ngenye yezakhiwo ezihlaba umxhwele kakhulu ezenziwe ngabantu. Isisekelo singamamitha ayi-980 ububanzi futhi sincipha kancane kancane sibe ngamamitha angama-40 phezulu.

Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwathatha ama-cubic metres ayizigidi ezingama-43 zamatshe neminyaka eyi-10 ukuyiqeda. Ukwakhiwa kwaleli jele kwaholela ekuqaleni kweLake Nasser. Leli chibi lingamakhilomitha angaba ngu-500 ubude futhi lifinyelela kumakhilomitha ayi-16 ububanzi. Ihlala ingqikithi yamakhilomitha-skwele angama-6.000 wamanzi, okwenza libe yichibi elikhulu kunawo wonke elenziwe ngabantu emhlabeni. Lokhu kwakhiwa kwakudingeka njengoba esho ukuthi wayehlangabezana nezinkinga zesomiso nezikhukhula. Izikhukhula bezingamiswa njengoba bezingekho izingqalasizinda ezingagcina amanzi. Kwenzeka okufanayo nangemiphumela emibi yesomiso. Njengoba imvula yayiphansi kwezinye izinkathi zonyaka, amanzi ayengagcinelwa ukulethwa nokuniselwa.

Ubukhulu nedamu eliphansi

Indawo enezikhukhula eyakha iLake Nasser yenze ukuthi kudingeke ukuthi kuthuthwe abantu abangaphezu kuka-90.000 kuya ezikhumbuzweni ezingama-24. Izikhumbuzo ezibaluleke kakhulu ezisuswe lapho kwakhiwa iDamu i-Aswan kube ngamathempeli ka-Abu Simbel noPhilae. Idamu linalo Ama-generator ayi-12 wamamegawathi ama-175 wamandla futhi ngalinye linomkhiqizo ophehlwa ngamanzi we-10.000 GWh / ngonyaka. Ekuqaleni, njengoba isidingo sikagesi besingaphakeme kangako, besikwazi ukuhambisa uhhafu wazo zonke izidingo eGibhithe.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, kune-Aswan Dam eminingana. Idamu eliphansi le-Aswan lakhiwa abaseBrithani ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-54 futhi lingamamitha angama-XNUMX ukuphakama. Yize lakhuliswa kabili phakathi nekhulu lama-XNUMX, lalizophuphuma ngo-1946. Lokhu kungenxa yemvula enkulu enamandla edale izikhukhula leli damu ebelingakwazi ukubhekana nazo. Kungaleso sikhathi-ke lapho kwaqala ukucatshangelwa umbono wokwakha idamu elisha elinomthamo omkhulu ukuze ukwazi ukunciphisa lezi zinkinga zezikhukhula.

Izivakashi eziningi zifuna ukuvakashela i-Aswan Dam futhi ukuvakasha kwazo kuqukethe ukuhamba ngomgwaqo phezulu. Lapho yonke ingxenye ephezulu isimboziwe, imoto kufanele imiswe endaweni yokupaka phakathi nendawo yokwakhiwa. Ukusuka lapho ungabona ezinhlangothini zombili ukungalingani kwamanzi nobukhulu bedamu. Alukho uhlobo lokuthi kungenzeka uvakashele ingaphakathi noma igumbi le-turbine lapho kukhiqizwa khona amandla kagesi kagesi. Kuze kube namuhla leli damu alizange libe yingxenye yezokuvakasha.

Yize lokhu kuvakasha kungabekwa njengokubalulekile, njengoba kungukuma nje kwemizuzu embalwa, kuvame ukuheha ukuvakasha okuningi. Uma lokhu kuyisimo lapho uthatha khona uhambo oluya ethempelini likaPhilae nase-Unfinished Obelisk, kuyathakazelisa ukuthatha leli damu ukuze ulibone.

Umsuka weDamu i-Aswan

idamu le-aswan

Alukho uhlobo lomshini olunomlando omningi njengalo. Lapho iqeda ukwakhiwa kwayo ngo-1970 yangena ezinhlwini eziyishumi eziphezulu kweziningi zezikhundla zamadamu nezitsha emhlabeni. Njengamanje bakwi-top 8 ngokwendawo engaphezulu nakuma-4 aphezulu ngamandla omthamo wamachibi. Okuthinte kakhulu umhlaba ngemuva kokwakhiwa kwawo kube ngumsebenzi owenziwa ngosizo lwamazwe amaningi ukukwazi ukusindisa amathempeli amahle aseGibhithe ayengasosebeni lweNayile.Futhi yilawa mathempeli amaningi futhi azocwiliswa ngaphansi amanzi avela echibini lesikhathi esizayo. Ngalokhu, amazwe angama-52 abambisene emsebenzini wokuhambisa amathempeli anganaki isizumbulu semali.

Le ndaba yenzeke phakathi kwempi ebandayo lapho bekukhona umbango wamandla nezimpi zensimu. Ukwakhiwa kweDamu i-Aswan kwaba ukuphuma okuphoqelelwe kwezinkulungwane zabantu okwakudingeka bathuthe. Kuphinde kwaba yimpi yokulwa newashi ukuze kusindiswe izikhumbuzo ezihlukile ezineminyaka engaphezu kwengu-4.000 XNUMX ubudala.

Khumbula ukuthi iGibhithe liyihlane elingama-98% futhi amabhange eNayile kuphela ahlala futhi angumhlaba ovundile. Lokhu kusho ukuthi idamu lingaqinisekisa ukutholakala kwamanzi unyaka wonke futhi ligweme ukuhlukunyezwa ngezikhukhula zemifula ezingalindelekile. Kungumsebenzi owashintsha impilo yaseGibhithe. Ngaphandle kwamanzi, kuzovumela ugesi ukuthi ufinyelele ezindaweni ezingaphezu kuka-20.000 XNUMX ezazingakabi nawo. Njengoba sishilo phambilini, bekuvele kukhona idamu laseBrithani e-Aswan kodwa belingamamitha angama-30 kuphela ukuphakama futhi belingakwazi ukugcina amanzi anele. Kwakuhlala kukhungathekiswe uMfula iNayile okhulayo futhi wawungagcina amanzi unyaka kuphela.

Ngokukhokhelwa nguhulumeni omusha, iphrojekthi yenkanyezi yaqala futhi kwaqala ukuzama ukuthola uxhaso nosizo. Ngemuva kokuthola imali yokwakhiwa kopharaonic, imisebenzi yaqala. Leli damu linemisebenzi eyahlukahlukene: lifuna ukuvikela abantu kwizikhukhula zomlando woMfula iNayile, lisebenza ukugcina amanzi okunisela nokusetshenziswa nokukhiqiza amandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeDamu lase-Aswan nemvelaphi yalo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.