I-Thermodynamics

i-thermodynamics

Emhlabeni we-physics kukhona igatsha elibhekele ukutadisha ukuguqulwa okukhiqizwa ukushisa nokusebenza kohlelo. Imayelana ne- i-thermodynamics. Igatsha le-physics elibhekele ukutadisha konke ukuguqulwa okuvela kuphela kuzinqubo ezibandakanya ushintsho kokuhluka kombuso kokushisa namandla ezingeni le-macroscopic.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana ne-thermodynamics kanye nemigomo ye-thermodynamics.

Izici eziyinhloko

imithetho ye-thermodynamics

Uma senza ukuhlaziywa kwe-classical thermodynamics siyabona ukuthi kusekelwe kumqondo wohlelo lwe-macroscopic. Lolu hlelo aluyilutho oludlula ingxenye yesisindo somzimba noma somqondo esihlukaniswe nemvelo yangaphandle. Ukuze ufunde kangcono izinhlelo ze-thermodynamic, kuhlala kucatshangwa ukuthi kuyisisindo somzimba esingaphazanyiswa ukushintshaniswa kwamandla ne-ecosystem yangaphandle.

Isimo sohlelo lwe-macroscopic siyini ngaphansi kwezimo zokulingana icaciswa ngamanani abizwa ngokuguquguquka kwe-thermodynamic. Siyazazi zonke lezi zinto eziguqukayo futhi ukushisa, ingcindezi, ivolumu nokwakheka kwamakhemikhali. Zonke lezi zinto eziguqukayo yizo ezichaza amasistimu nokulingana kwawo. Imibono esemqoka etholakala kumakhemikhali e-thermodynamics isungulwe ngenxa yenyunyana yamazwe omhlaba efakiwe. Ngalezi zingxenye umthetho we-thermodynamics ungasebenza kangcono futhi uchazwe.

Kodwa-ke, kukhona igatsha le-thermodynamics elingafundi ukulingana, kepha elibhekele ukuhlaziya izinqubo ze-thermodynamic ezibonakala kakhulu ukungabi namandla okufeza izimo zokulingana ngendlela ezinzile.

Imithetho

ukulingana okushisayo

Lezi zimiso zalahlwa ngekhulu le-XNUMX labo labo Baphethe ukulawula zonke izinguquko kanye nenqubekela phambili yabo. Babuye bahlaziye ukuthi yimiphi imikhawulo yangempela ukuze babe nokukhulelwa kweqiniso. Angama-axioms angenakufakazelwa kepha angenakuphikiswa ngokuya ngesipiliyoni. Yonke inkolelo ye-thermodynamics isuselwa kulezi zimiso. Singakwazi ukuhlukanisa imigomo emi-3 eyisisekelo kanye nomgomo kepha leyo yiyona echaza izinga lokushisa futhi ecacisiwe kweminye imigomo emi-3.

Umthetho we-Zero

Sizokuchaza ukuthi yini lo mthetho onguziro, okungowokuqala ukuchaza izinga lokushisa elihambisana neminye imigomo. Lapho amasistimu amabili ehlangana futhi eba sesilinganisweni esishisayo babelana ngezici ezithile. Lezi zakhiwo abelana ngazo zingalinganiswa futhi zinikezwe inani lezinombolo. Ngenxa yalokhu, uma lezi zinhlelo zombili zilingana nengxenye yesithathu, zizoba ngokulingana komunye nomunye futhi impahla eyabiwe ukushisa.

Ngakho-ke, lo mgomo kepha umane usho ukuthi uma umzimba u-A ubukulingana nomzimba B futhi lo mzimba B uzoba sesilinganisweni esishisayo nomzimba C, bese kuthi imizimba A no-C nazo zibe sesilinganisweni okushisayo. Lesi simiso sichaza iqiniso lokuthi imizimba emibili emazingeni okushisa ahlukene ingashintshanisa ukushisa komunye nomunye. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi yomibili le mizimba ifinyelela izinga lokushisa elifanayo, ngakho-ke isilingana ngokuphelele.

Umthetho wokuqala weThermodynamics

Lapho umzimba uhlanganiswa nomzimba obanda kakhudlwana, kwenzeka uguquko oluholela esimeni sokulinganisela. Lesi simo sokulingana sisekelwe eqinisweni lokuthi izinga lokushisa lemizimba emibili liyalingana njengoba ukudluliswa kwamandla kuthuthukiswa phakathi komzimba oshisayo womzimba obandayo. Ukuze bachaze lo mkhuba, ososayensi bacabanga ukuthi into eshisayo ekhona ngobuningi, idlule umzimba obandayo. Kwakucatshangwa uketshezi olwalungahamba phakathi kwesisindo ukuze lukwazi ukushintshanisa ukushisa.

Lesi simiso sibhekele ukukhomba ukushisa njengendlela yamandla. Akuyona into ebonakalayo. Ngale ndlela, kungakhonjiswa ukuthi ukushisa, okulinganiswa ngama-calories nomsebenzi, olinganiswa ngama-joules, kuyalingana. Ngakho-ke, siyazi namuhla lokho Ikholori eli-1 licishe libe ama-joule angama-4,186.

Kungashiwo ukuthi umthetho wokuqala we-thermodynamics umgomo wokongiwa kwamandla. Inani lamandla enjinini yokushisa liguqulwa libe ngumsebenzi futhi lingabonakala kunoma yimuphi umshini ongaveza lo msebenzi ngaphandle kokudla amandla. Singasungula lesi simiso sokuqala njenge: ukwahluka kwamandla angaphakathi wohlelo oluvaliwe lwe-thermodynamic kulingana nomehluko okhona phakathi kokushisa okunikezwe uhlelo kanye nomsebenzi owenziwe yileso simiso emvelweni.

Umthetho wesibili we-thermodynamics

entropy

Lokhu ekuqaleni kusho ukuthi akunakwenzeka ukwenza umshini wokujikeleza oholela kuphela ekudluliseni ukushisa kusuka emzimbeni obandayo kuya emzimbeni ofudumele. Singasho ukuthi akunakwenzeka ukuthi uguquko lungenziwa umphumela wawo ozoba kuphela leyo yokuguqula ukushisa esikukhiphe emthonjeni owodwa kwaba yimishini.

Lo mgomo uphethe ukuphika ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ukunyakaza okungapheli kwohlobo lwesibili lukhona. Siyazi ukuthi i- entropy kohlelo kuhlala kukodwa kungashintshiwe lapho kwenzeka uguquko olubuyela emuva. Siyazi futhi ukuthi kuyanda lapho kwenzeka uguquko olungalungiseki.

Umthetho wesithathu we-thermodynamics

Lesi simiso sokugcina sihlobene kakhulu nesesibili futhi sithathwa njengomphumela waso. Lo mgomo uqinisekisa ukuthi ubukhona ngokuphelele abunakufinyelelwa ngombala ngenani elilinganiselwe lezinguquko. Siyazi ukuthi kukhona u-zero ophelele ongekho ngaphezu kwezinga lokushisa eliphansi elingafinyelelwa. Ngamayunithi UKelvin siyazi ukuthi ngu-0, kepha ngo-degrees Celsius unenani lika -273.15 degrees.

Iphinde ithi i-entropy yokuqina okuyi-crystalline ephelele enezinga lokushisa lika-0 kelvin ilingana no-0. Lokhu kusho ukuthi bekungeke kube khona ukungena entropy, ngakho-ke uhlelo luyozinza ngokuphelele. Amandla wenkululeko, ukuhumusha nokuzungezisa izinhlayiya eziyibhalayo ngeke kube yilutho emazingeni okushisa ka-0 kelvin.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-thermodynamics nangezimiso eziyisisekelo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.