I-Petrology

i-petrology namatshe

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngegatsha le-geology eligxile ekutadisheni amatshe esewonke. Imayelana ne- i-petrology. Inhloso enkulu yaleli gatsha lesayensi ukutadisha izici zensimu yejometri, izici ze-petrographic, izingxenye, ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali okuningiliziwe kanye namaminerali ahlukahlukene akha amatshe. Kubaluleke kakhulu ukutadisha izindawo ezahlukahlukene ezakha imvelo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, izifundo kanye nezinhloso ze-petrology.

Izici eziyinhloko

i-petrology

Uma sikhuluma nge-petrology sigxile ekutadisheni amatshe esewonke. Zama ukukhomba imibandela izinqubo ze-physicochemical zokwakheka kwamadwala futhi yiziphi izinqubo zokuziphendukela kwemvelo ezenzeka phakathi kohlobo lwazo. Kunezifundo eziningi ze-petrographic ezikhuluma ngencazelo ebonakalayo ngokwamatshe abonakalayo. Ukwenza lokhu, isebenzisa imicroscopy yokukhanya ehlukanisiwe, esebenzisa ukukhanya okudluliswayo, yize kubonakala kwezinye izimo. Zonke lezi zifundo zinikela ngemininingwane eminingi ngobunjalo bezakhi zamadwala, amaminerali empeleni, ubuningi bawo, ukuma kwawo, ubukhulu bawo kanye nobudlelwano bendawo.

Zonke lezi zici zisiza ukuhlukanisa amadwala futhi kusungulwe zonke izimo zekhwalithi nezokulinganisa zokwakheka kwazo. Amanye amadwala enziwe ngezinqubo ezahlukahlukene zokuziphendukela kwemvelo nazo ezikhonjwayo ku-petrology. Izingxenye zePetrographic yilezo ezakha idwala futhi ezinesimo somzimba. Lezi zingxenye yizinhlamvu zamaminerali, izinhlangano ezithile zamaminerali nezinye izingcezu zamatshe ezihlobene nezofuzo noma cha. Ezinye zenzeka kuzo zonke izinhlobo zamatshe njengamaminerali okusanhlamvu noma ama-pores. Lezi zigcwele kakhulu emadwaleni asezintabeni nasemadwaleni e-volcanic igneous. Kodwa-ke, zivame kakhulu emadwaleni e-metamorphic nasemadwaleni e-plutonic igneous.

Ezinye zazo zenzeka kuphela ezinhlotsheni ezithile zamatshe ezifana nengilazi yentaba-mlilo etholakala ematsheni omlilo we-volcanic. Ezinye zenzeka ngezikhathi ezithile, njengokuphuka.

Ubudlelwano bomhlaba obuhlangene ku-petrology

ukwakheka kwamatshe

Namuhla sizohlukanisa imiqondo ehlukene yobudlelwano bezindawo ezihlangene ekufundweni kwemvelo. Owokuqala ukuthungwa. Kuyisethi yobudlelwano bezindawo ezihlangana ngezikhathi ezithile kanye nezimpawu zokuziphatha kwamadwala. Yilapho okusanhlamvu okukhona edwaleni nasekuhlanganisweni kwamaminerali kungena khona. Kungashiwo ukuthi izingxenye zedwala yilezo ezilinika izici zalo zokuziphatha. Amagama esakhiweni kanye nenqubo esetshenzisiwe ukukhomba lezi zinto ahluka ngokuya ngohlobo lwedwala elizofundwa.

Kunezinhlobo eziningi zobudlelwano bendawo ngaphakathi kwe-petrology, yize kungasungulwa izinhlobo ezi-5 eziyisisekelo ezisebenza kuwo wonke amadwala emvelo. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zokwakheka nezinhlanganisela ezitholakala kakhulu:

  • Ukuthungwa ngokulandelana: yaziwa nangokuthi igama lokuthungwa kwe-serial futhi ingenye lapho idwala lakhiwa khona amakristalu akhule evela kusixazululo soketshezi. Isibonelo salokhu nge-magma noma uketshezi oluthile. Amakristalu edwala akhula ngezikhathi ezahlukahlukene ngakho-ke anezici ezihlukile zokuziphatha. Lolu hlobo lokuthungwa lusebenza kuzo zonke izinhlobo zamadwala, yize lujwayeleke kakhulu emadwaleni e-plutonic nase-volcanic igneous nakwamanye amadwala ase-sedimentary.
  • Ukuthungwa kwe-Vitreous: Kungumbhalo okhombisa lawo matshe enziwe ngengilazi ngokuphelele noma ngokwengxenye futhi akhiwa ukuqina okusheshayo kokuncibilika komlingo. Kuyinto ejwayelekile ngokwedlulele yamadwala entaba-mlilo.
  • Ukuthungwa okunamandla: Yileyo eyakhiwa izingcezu zamatshe namaminerali ahlanganisiwe noma cha ngaphakathi kwento ecwengekile, eqhweni kanye / noma efakwe kabusha. Lokhu kuthungatha kusebenza emadwaleni entengantenga okonakele, yize amanye amadwala entaba-mlilo nawo ayethula. Izingcezu zamatshe nezamaminerali zibizwa ngokuthi ama-clast.
  • Blast ukuthungwa: Yilelo elenziwe ngamakristalu akhiwe endaweni eqinile. Ikhiqizwe ngokuguqulwa kwamaminerali akhona. Lolu hlobo lokuthungwa luvame ukutholakala ikakhulukazi emadwaleni e-metamorphic. Izinhlamvu zamaminerali ezenziwe kabusha zibizwa ngokuthi ukuqhuma.

I-Petrology ne-crystallography

isifundo samatshe

Lapho sichaza ubukhulu bomsebenzi we-petrology kanye ne-crystallography, siyabona ukuthi kunemiqondo efanayo. Futhi ukuthi ukuma kwendawo esishilo ngaphambili kwazo zonke izingxenye nezinto ze-crystallographic zamaminerali ngaphakathi kwedwala, kufundwa kuwo womabili amagatsha. Ake sibheke ukuthi yini okufanele icatshangelwe ekunqumeni ifektri ye-crystallographic nezinhlobo ezikhona:

  • Isotropic: Kuyinto eyodwa lapho kungekho khona ukukhetha okuncamelayo kwezakhi.
  • Komugqa: Kungenye lapho ukuqondiswa kwezinto kunezinkomba ezivelele.
  • Iplanethi: kungukuma lapho izingxenye zisendizeni eyodwa.
  • Umugqa wendiza: Kungukuqondisa kwezakhi ohlangothini olulodwa nangaphakathi kwendiza efanayo.

Ngokuvamile sithola amadwala ekhubazekile, ngakho-ke izingxenye zokuqala ezazivele zilingana zikwazile ukuyeka ukuba njalo. Imvamisa, ziyeka ukuba ngenxa yokuguqulwa kwepulasitiki. Ukusonteka okushiwo kuvela kwingcindezi ukuze izingxenye zayo zibhekane nazo. Iningi lamadwala we-metamorphic akhona amafemu ahlukahlukene. Endabeni yamamabula athile siyabona ukuthi aveza ukukhetha okukhethekile kokuma kwe-morphological kanye ne-crystallographic yamabele we-calcite. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukukhawulelwa kokukhetha kwezinye izinto akudingeki ukuthi kungenxa yokuguquguquka esimweni esiqinile.

Sivame ukuthola ezinhlotsheni ezihlukene zamadwala ubuhlobo obucacile bimodal phakathi kwezingxenye eziqinile. I-Eta isho lokho abanye banosayizi okusanhlamvu oqinile kunabanye. Inani labantu bazo zonke izingxenye ezinhle libizwa nge-matrix. Lo mqondo unezincazelo ezihlukile kuye ngedwala elisetshenziswayo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umqondo wosimende usebenza ikakhulukazi emadwaleni esixhumanisi sedimentary aguqulwe nganoma yiluphi uhlobo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-petrology nezici zayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.