Intaba iMerapi

intaba-mlilo ye-merapi

IMount Merapi iyintaba-mlilo esebenzayo etholakala eCentral Java, e-Indonesia, cishe amakhilomitha angama-30 enyakatho yeYogyakarta, leli dolobha linabantu abangaphezu kuka-500.000. Iqokwe njengenye yezintaba-mlilo eziqhuma kakhulu emhlabeni, ikakhulukazi ngoba isendaweni encishisiwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iyintaba-mlilo eqhuma kakhulu kuzo zonke izintaba-mlilo e-Indonesia.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke okudingeka ukwazi nge-Mount Merapi, yiziphi izici zayo, ukuqhuma nokubaluleka kwayo.

Izici eziyinhloko

i-mount merapi

I-Gunung Merapi, njengoba yaziwa kanjalo ezweni layo, ihlukaniswa njengentaba-mlilo eyi-stratovolcano noma intaba-mlilo eyinhlanganisela eyakhiwe ngodaka lwamanzi olwaxoshwa eminyakeni eyizigidi. I-Global Volcanic Activity Programme ithi isendaweni engamamitha angu-2.968 ngaphezu kogu lolwandle, nakuba i-United States Geological Survey iyisho ngamamitha angu-2.911. Lezi zilinganiso azinembile, ngoba ukuqhubeka nokusebenza kwentaba-mlilo kuzozishintsha. Njengamanje iphansi kunokuqhuma okukhulu okwenzeka ngaphambi kuka-2010.

Igama elithi "Merapi" lisho "iNtaba Yomlilo." Itholakala eduze kwendawo enabantu abaningi, futhi ukuqina kokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kuyenze yathola indawo eminyakeni eyishumi yezintaba-mlilo, okuyenza ibe ngenye yezintaba-mlilo eziyi-16 ezifundwe kakhulu emhlabeni. Naphezu kwengozi, amaJavane acebile ezinganekwaneni nasezinganekwaneni, ngaphezu kwalokho, ubuhle bawo bemvelo obusobala buhlotshiswe ngaphansi kwezimila eziminyene futhi kuyikhaya lezilwane eziningi.

Ukwakhiwa kweNtaba iMerapi

intabamlilo esebenzayo

I-Merapi isendaweni yokuncishiswa lapho ipuleti lase-Indian-Australia licwila ngaphansi kwepuleti le-Sunda (noma i-probe). I-subduction zone yindawo lapho ipuleti lishona khona ngaphansi kwelinye, okubangela ukuzamazama komhlaba kanye / noma umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo. Izinto ezakha amapuleti zidudula i-magma isuke phakathi nengaphakathi lomhlaba, idale ingcindezi enkulu, iphoqe ukuthi inyukele phezulu kuze kube yilapho uqweqwe lugqabuka bese kwakheka intaba-mlilo.

Ngokombono wokwakheka komhlaba, amaMerapi angabantu abancane kunabo bonke eningizimu yeJava. Ukuqhuma kwayo kungenzeka ukuthi kwaqala eminyakeni engu-400.000 edlule futhi kusukela lapho ibibonakala ngokuziphatha kwayo okunobudlova. I-viscous lava nezinto eziqinile ezaxoshwa ngesikhathi sokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo zinqwabelane zibe izingqimba futhi ingaphezulu laba lukhuni, kwakheka isimo esijwayelekile sentaba-mlilo esinezingqimba. Ngemva kokuvela kwayo, iMerapi yaqhubeka ikhula ngesikhathi sePleistocene kwaze kwaba cishe eminyakeni eyizi-2,000 XNUMX edlule ukuwa kwesakhiwo esikhulu.

Ukuqhuma kwe-Mount Merapi

i-volcano e-Indonesia

Inomlando omude wokuqhuma okunodlame. Kuye kwaba neziqhumane ezingu-68 kusukela ngo-1548, futhi phakathi nokuba khona kwayo, kuye kwaba neziqhumane eziyi-102 eziqinisekisiwe emhlabeni. Ivamise ukuba nokuqhuma okukhulu ngokugeleza kwe-pyroclastic, kodwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, iqhuma kakhulu futhi yakhe i-lava dome, ipulaki emise okwendunduma.

Ngokuvamile kuba nokuqubuka okuncane njalo eminyakeni engu-2-3 kanye nokuqubuka okukhulu njalo eminyakeni eyi-10-15. Ukugeleza kwe-Pyroclastic okwakhiwe umlotha, igesi, itshe le-pumice nezinye izingcezu zamadwala kuyingozi kakhulu kunodaka, ngoba zingehla ngesivinini esingaphezu kwamakhilomitha angu-150 ngehora futhi zifinyelele ezindaweni ezinkulu, zibangele umonakalo ophelele noma ingxenye. Inkinga ngeMerapi ukuthi itholakala kwenye yezindawo ezinabantu abaningi e-Indonesia, enabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingu-24 endaweni eyi-100 km.

Ukuqhuma okubi kakhulu kwenzeka ngo-1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930, no-2010. Ukuqhuma ngo-1006 kwakunamandla kangangokuthi kwakukholelwa ukuthi kwaholela ekupheleni koMbuso waseMataram, nakuba bungekho ubufakazi obanele bokusekela le nkolelo. . . Kodwa-ke, u-2010 waba unyaka omubi kakhulu wekhulu lama-353, wathinta izinkulungwane zabantu, wacekela phansi amahektha ezitshalo futhi wabulala abantu abangama-XNUMX.

Lo mcimbi uqale ngo-Okthoba waze waphela ngoDisemba. Ikhiqize ukuzamazama komhlaba, ukuqhuma kweziqhumane (hhayi nje okukodwa), ama-avalanches ashisayo, ukudilika kwentaba-mlilo, ukugeleza kwe-pyroclastic, amafu aminyene womlotha wentaba-mlilo, kanye neziqhumane zomlilo ezibangele abantu abangaba ngu-350.000 ukuba babaleke amakhaya abo. Ekugcineni, yaba enye yezinhlekelele zemvelo ezinkulu e-Indonesia eminyakeni yamuva.

Ukuqubuka kwakamuva

Intabamlilo eqhuma kakhulu e-Indonesia iphinde yaqhuma futhi ngoMsombuluko, Agasti 16, 2021, yakhafula imifula yodaka kanye namafu egesi kusukela phansi kwentaba esiqhingini esinabantu abaningi sase-Java, esinqamula amakhilomitha angu-3,5, ​​2 (amamayela angu-XNUMX).

Ukuduma kokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo kuzwakala amakhilomitha ambalwa ukusuka eNtabeni iMerapi, futhi umlotha wentaba-mlilo oqhamuke entaba-mlilo ungamamitha angaba ngu-600 (cishe amafidi angu-2000) ukuphakama. Umlotha umboze imiphakathi eseduze, nakuba umyalelo wokuphuma wawusasebenza eduze kwe-crater, ngakho-ke abekho abalimele ababikiwe.

Umqondisi weYogyakarta Volcanic and Geological Disaster Mitigation Centre, uHanik Humeda, uthe lona umoya omkhulu kunawo wonke ophuma eMount Merapi kusukela iziphathimandla zanyusa izinga lengozi ngoNovemba nyakenye.

I-dome eseningizimu-ntshonalanga ilinganiselwa ukuthi inomthamo wama-cubic metres ayizigidi ezingu-1,8 (66,9 million cubic feet) nokuphakama okungamamitha angu-3 (9,8 feet). Yabe isibhidlika kancane ngoMsombuluko ekuseni, kwaqhuma ukugeleza kwe-pyroclastic kusuka ohlangothini oluseningizimu-ntshonalanga yentaba okungenani kabili.

Emini, okungenani ezinye izinto ezimbili ezincane ze-pyroclastic ziqhume, zehla cishe amakhilomitha angu-1,5 (imayela elingu-1) ngomthambeka oseningizimu-ntshonalanga. Le ntaba engamamitha angu-2.968 (9.737-foot) itholakala eduze kwase-Yogyakarta, idolobha lasendulo elinabantu abangamakhulu ezinkulungwane endaweni yedolobha lase-Java Island. Sekungamakhulu eminyaka leli dolobha liyisikhungo samasiko aseJavanese kanye nesizinda somndeni wasebukhosini.

Isimo sokuqwashisa se-Merapi silokhu sisesigabeni sesibili kwezine zobungozi kusukela kwaqala ukuqhuma ngoNovemba odlule, kanti i-Indonesian Geological and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation Centre ayizange ikuphakamise naphezu kokwanda komsebenzi.

Ngethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-Mount Merapi nezici zayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.