I-Hydroxyl

Iqembu i-hydroxyl Yileyo eyakhiwe nge-athomu ye-oksijeni ne-athomu ye-hydrogen futhi efana ne-molecule yamanzi. Ingatholakala ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zamakhemikhali njengeqembu, i-ion noma i-radical. Kubo bonke labo bantu abafunda i-organic chemistry, ukwazi ukusabela nokubaluleka kwaleli qembu lama-athomu kubalulekile. Futhi iyakwazi ukwakha izibopho ezibalulekile ne-athomu yekhabhoni, yize ingakwenza futhi nge-sulphur ne-phosphorus.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngezici zeqembu le-hydroxyl kanye nokubaluleka kwalo kumakhemikhali wezinto eziphilayo.

Izici eziyinhloko

izinhlanganisela eziphilayo

Uma sihlaziya iqembu le-hydroxyl ngokombono wamakhemikhali angajwayelekile siyabona ukuthi libamba iqhaza kakhulu njenge-ion. Ngamanye amagama, uhlobo lwentambo olukhona phakathi kwayo nezinsimbi aluhlangani, kepha luyi-ionic. Ngenxa yalokhu, iqembu le-hydroxyl selibe yinto ebalulekile esiza ekuchazeni izakhiwo nokuguqulwa kwamakhemikhali amaningi.

Iqembu le-hydroxyl linamathele ku-radical echazwe cngohlamvu R uma kungu-alkyl noma ngohlamvu u-Ar uma kunuka kamnandi. Engikwaziyo kakhulu ngesayensi yikhona okunikela ngeqembu le-hydroxyl kwi-molecule ebopha kuyo. Impendulo enhle kakhulu itholakala ekutadisheni kwama-proton ayo. Futhi ukuthi ama-proton angasuswa ngezisekelo eziqinile ukuze akwazi ukwakha usawoti. Lokhu kungaphinde kuhlanganyele namanye amaqembu azungezile axhunywe komunye nomunye ngama-hydrogen bond. Ngaphezu kwalokho, into ebaluleke kakhulu ngeqembu le-hydroxyl ukuthi, noma ngabe ikuphi, ingamela indawo engaba khona yokwakhiwa kwamanzi.

Isakhiwo seqembu le-hydroxyl

i-organic chemistry

Iqembu le-hydroxyl selibe yi-molecule ethokozisayo ngokombono wamakhemikhali aphilayo. I-molecule yamanzi inesimo se-angular futhi ibukeka njenge-boomerang. Uma sisika omunye wemikhawulo yawo, okusho okufanayo nokususa iproton, izimo ezahlukahlukene zingenzeka. Imolekyuli yamanzi siguqulwe saba yi-hydroxyl radical noma i-hydroxyl ion. Kodwa-ke, womabili ane-geometry eqondile yamangqamuzana futhi awekho kugesi.

Zonke lezi zibopho kungenxa yokuthi ziqondiswe kuma-athomu amabili ukuze zikwazi ukuhlala zihambelana ngaso sonke isikhathi. Okufanayo akunjalo ngama-orbitals e-hybrid. Ukhiye weqembu le-hydroxyl ukuvumela ama-molecule ahlukene ukuthi ahlangane nomunye adinga ama-hydrogen bond. Lezi zibopho ze-hydrogen azinamandla ngokwazo, kepha njengoba inani lemithombo kanye nenani lamaqembu e-hydroxyl esakhiweni landa, imiphumela iyanda. Lokhu kwanda kwenani lama-hydrogen bond kukhonjiswa nasezakhiweni zomzimba zekhompiyutha.

Ama-hydrogen bond adinga ukuthi ama-athomu abekwe maqondana. Kunama-athomu e-oxygen eqembu elilodwa le-hydroxyl okumele ahlelwe ngendlela yokuthi akwazi ukukhiqiza umugqa oqondile ne-hydrogen yeqembu lesibili. Lokhu kuyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe kepha kwenzeka kaningi. Ngale ndlela, amalungiselelo endawo acacisiwe avela njenge kwenzekani ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo se-molecule ye-DNA. Lokhu kwenzeka phakathi kwezisekelo ezine-nitrogen ezakha i-DNA.

Singabiza inani lamaqembu e-hydroxyl isakhiwo esilingana ngqo nobumbano lwamanzi lwe-molecule. Sizobeka isibonelo ukuze siyiqonde kangcono. Yize ushukela unesakhiwo se-hydrophobic carbon, ngoba unenani elikhulu lamaqembu e-hydroxyl, kwenza kuncibilike kakhulu emanzini.

Ama-ion nemisebenzi yawo

Iqembu le-hydroxyl ne-ion ziyafana kodwa zinamakhemikhali ahlukile. I-hydroxyl ion iyisisekelo esinamandla ngokweqile futhi isebenza ngokubamba ama-proton. Uma siyiphoqa, ingaphenduka amanzi. Futhi lena yimolekyuli yamanzi engaphelele ekhokhiswa kabi futhi edinga ukuthi kuqedwe i-proton. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kusukela iqembu le-hydroxyl asikho isidingo sokubamba ama-proton ukukuqedela iziphatha njengesisekelo esibuthakathaka ngokweqile. Iyakwazi ukunikela ngama-proton yize ikwenza lokho kuphela ngokumelene nezisekelo ezinamandla kakhulu.

Ama-nuclei amahle ngama-athomu akule molecule ehlushwa ukuntuleka kwe-elekthronikhi njengomphumela wemvelo yawo ekhethwayo.

Iqembu le-Hydroxyl ne-meteorology

i-hydroxyl emelana nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu

Siyazi ukuthi isebenza njengohlobo lwensipho esemoyeni ediliza amanye amagesi. Siyazi ukuthi iqembu le-hydroxyl yiyona eyinhloko yokulawulwa kokuhlushwa kwe-methane. Igesi iMethane yigesi yokushisa okushisa edlulwa kuphela ekugxilisweni yi i-carbon dioxide ekubambeni kwayo ekushiseni komhlaba. Yize igesi le-methane litholakala kancane emoyeni, liyakwazi ukugcina ukushisa okukhulu kune-carbon dioxide.

Kukhona ucwaningo olusha oluholwa ngumuntu osebenza ngemuva kwe-NASA okhombisile ukuthi ama-hydroxyl radicals ayaziphinda futhi bayakwazi ukugcina isimo somoya esihlala njalo. Lokhu kuhlushwa kugcinwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi noma ngabe ukukhishwa kwe-methane kukhuphuka. Ngakho-ke, ukuqonda indima ye-hydroxyl kubalulekile ukuqonda impilo ewusizo yemethane nomoya.

Ososayensi baveze ukuthi ukukhuphuka kokugxila nokukhishwa kwegesi yemethane kungadala ukuthi inani lama-radical hydroxyl aqedwe emhlabeni wonke. Ngale ndlela, impilo ewusizo ye-methane izokwandiswa, inkinga ezokwengeza ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke. Ngokwenza isikhathi sempilo semethane sibe side, besingeke sibe nalutho lokuhlanza umkhathi ngalo. Imithombo eyinhloko ye-hydroxyl ne-methane nokuthi zisabela kanjani ziye zabonwa. Ukuphinda kusetshenziswe kabusha kwaleli qembu kwenzeka ngemuva kokubola kwe-methane bese kuba nezinguquko phambi kwamanye amagesi. Ukugxilwa kwe-Hydroxyl kuzinzile ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Akufanele zinyamalale lapho iphendula nge-methane.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana neqembu le-hydroxyl nakho konke ukubaluleka kwalo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.