I-Horsehead Nebula

i-orion nebula

Emkhathini kunezigidi zezakhi ezakha indawo yonke, futhi izazi zezinkanyezi zibhekelele ukubheka isakhi ngasinye ezindaweni ezihlukahlukene ukuze kutholakale igama laso, ukwakheka, ukuma, ithonya, kanye nembangela. Enye yalezi zici yi- i-horsehead nebula. Iyinebula enomumo othize okhethekile.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele konke okudingeka ukwazi mayelana ne-Horsehead Nebula, izici zayo, imvelaphi nokunye okuningi.

Okushoyo

I-Horsehead Nebula

I-Horsehead Nebula ekuqaleni yaziwa ngokuthi i-Barnard 33, etholakala kumlaza we-Orion, cishe iminyaka engu-1.600 3,5 yokukhanya ukusuka eMhlabeni, iyifu legesi elimnyama kakhulu, elibandayo, elingama-light-year angu-1919 ububanzi, lavela okokuqala ngo-XNUMX izincwadi nezincwadi zaseMelika ngo-Edward Emerson.

Le nebula iyingxenye ye-Orion Molecular Cloud Complex, futhi nakuba imnyama ngombala, ibonakala ngokungafani obala ngenxa yendawo yayo phambi kwenye i-nebula imisebe yayo nemithelela yokukhishwa kwayo ihlakazeke nge-tint ebomvu.

Ukuma kwekhanda layo lehhashi kufana nokwakheka kwamafu emkhathini woMhlaba, futhi ingashintsha ukubukeka kwayo izinkulungwane zeminyaka yokukhanya.

Ukutholwa kwe-Horsehead Nebula

i-horsehead nebula

Lokhu kutholwa kwenziwa ekupheleni kwekhulu le-1888, khona kanye ngo-XNUMX, lapho isazi sezinkanyezi saseScotland uWilliamina Stevens weHardvar College Observatory isebenzise ipuleti lezithombe elinepuleti lengilazi elimbozwe ungqimba oluncane lwezithombe ezizwelayo, yazithola isisemakethe yamafilimu ngokushesha. Ngobungozi obuncane kanye nezinye izinzuzo. Ngaleso sikhathi, ubuchwepheshe obudingekayo ukuze uthole izibonakude babungekho.

Ngokomlando wakhe, umbhali wokutholwa ekuqaleni wasebenza njengomsizi we-Hardwar Observatory, enza izibalo zezibalo, umsebenzi wasehhovisi, njll., wenza imisebenzi yomsizi womqondisi wesikhungo.

Ngisho nangaphandle kweziqu ze-astronomy, wayengumbhali wezinto eziningi ezitholwe emkhathini ezaholela ekwakhiweni kwamakhathalogi ezinkanyezi. Wayenomthwalo wemfanelo wokulungisa uhlelo lokwabela izinkanyezi izinhlamvu ngokusekelwe kokuqukethwe yi-hydrogen ku-spectra yazo. Khona-ke, lapho eneminyaka engu-30 ubudala, wazinikela ekuhlaziyeni uhlaka lwezinkanyezi.

Ngaleso sikhathi, uStevens wathola ama-nebulae anegesi angama-59, kanye nezinkanyezi eziguquguqukayo nezase-nova, kuze kufike ku-Horsehead Nebula, okumenze wathola isihloko somlondolozi we-Hardvar Archive of Astrophotography. Umsebenzi wakhe ugqamile, njengoba engomunye wabesifazane bokuqala ukusebenza ngokwanele emphakathini wesayensi yezinkanyezi, lapho athola khona iNdondo ye-Guadalupe Almendaro evela ku-Mexican Astronomical Society.

Ibhande le-Orion

Kulolu hlobo lwendatshana kuyadingeka ukuchaza amagama asetshenziswa njalo kusayensi yezinkanyezi, afanele isigaba esihlukile ukuze umfundi aqondwe kangcono. Kulo mcimbi singena esihlokweni seBelt of Orion, akuyona into engaphezu kweqembu lezinkanyezi ezibonakala zihlelwe ngephethini yejometri evela eMhlabeni.

Ama-Orion ayizinkanyezi ezintathu ezikhanya kakhulu ezaziwa ngesiko elidumile ngokuthi oMary Abathathu noma Amadoda Ahlakaniphile Abathathu, kodwa amagama abo esayensi empeleni ama-Alnitak, Alnilam kanye ne-Mintaka, futhi abonwa kusukela ngoNovemba kuya ekupheleni kukaMeyi.

Izici ze-Horsehead Nebula

isithombe se-horsehead nebula

I-Horsehead Nebula edumile imele ifu elimnyama, elingakhanyi lothuli negesi, uhlaka lwalo olusithwe ukukhanya okuvela ku-IC 434 ngemuva kwalo. I-IC 434 yona idonsa wonke amandla ayo enkanyezini ekhanyayo uSigma Orionis. Esukuma kunina onenkungu, I-Horsehead Nebula iyisakhiwo esishukumisayo ngempela kanye nelabhorethri ethakazelisayo ye-physics eyinkimbinkimbi.

Njengoba inweba endaweni ye-interstellar medium ezungeze i-nebula, iba ngaphansi kwengcindezi eholela ekwakhekeni kwezinkanyezi ezinobuningi obuphansi. Ebunzini lehhashi, kubonakala inkanyezi encane embozwe ngokucwebezelayo. Izinto ezincane ezibomvu ezikhanya othulini zimelela izinto ze-Herbig-Haro, ezikhazimulayo ezintweni ezikhishwe ama-protostar angabonakali. Indawo ezungezile futhi iqukethe izinto eziningi ezahlukene, ngayinye enokwehluka kwayo. I-nebula ekhishwayo ekhanyayo ngaphansi kwesokudla yi-NGC 2024 (i-Flame Nebula).

Uhlolovo lwe-infrared luveze inani elikhulu lezinkanyezi ezisanda kuzalwa ezifihlwe ngemuva kothuli negesi ye-NGC 2024. I-nebula ekhanyayo eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ekhanyayo kwesokudla esingezansi kwesokudla se-Horsehead Nebula yi-NGC 2023. Uthuli lwe-Interstellar lwembula ubukhona balo ngokuvimbela ukukhanya ezinkanyezini noma i-nebula engemuva kwazo. Uthuli luqukethe ikakhulukazi i-carbon, i-silicon, umoya-mpilo nezinye izakhi ezisindayo. Kwatholwa ngisho nezinhlanganisela zezinto eziphilayo.

Enye ye-nebula ekhanyayo ekhanyayo esibhakabhakeni, i-NGC 2023 ilele empumalanga ye-Horsehead Nebula futhi yakha ibhamuza elihle emaphethelweni efu le-molecular L1630. Inkanyezi yohlobo lwe-B HD37903, enezinga lokushisa elingaphezulu kuka-22.000 degrees, inesibopho sokusatshalaliswa kwegesi nothuli oluningi ngaphakathi kwe-NGC 2023, ephambi kwefu lamangqamuzana. Isici esiyingqayizivele se-NGC 2023 ubukhona bebhamuza le-hydrogen (H2) elingathathi hlangothi. ezungeze i-HD37903 enendawo engaba ngu-0,65 light-year.

Izinhlobo ze-nebulae ebhande le-Orion

Kukhona ama-nebulae amane ebhande le-Orion; eyokuqala i-Horsehead, ilandelwa yiFlame Nebula, IC-434⁵ kanye ne-Messier 78⁷.

ilangabi nebula

Ekuqaleni eyaziwa ngesifinyezo esithi NGC2024, iyinebula ama-athomu ayo e-hydrogen enziwa izithombe njalo inkanyezi i-Alnitkm, ekhiqiza ukukhanya okubomvu ngokushesha lapho ama-electron ebopha ama-athomu, njengoba kuboniswe ngezansi.

Ngokwethimba lososayensi abafunda i-nebula njengamanje, kunezinto eziseduze kwayo ezingabhekwa njengamaplanethi egesi, noma kunjalo, ukubhekwa kwalokhu kuyaqhubeka ngokusebenzisa i-Hubble Telescope namanye amathuluzi okulinganisa ukunemba.

I-IC-434

Ithola imisebe ye-ionizing evela enkanyezini ebizwa ngokuthi i-48 Orionis, okwenza kubonakale sengathi side futhi, ngenxa yezakhiwo zayo, kusivumela ukuthi siqhathanise okubonwa yi-Horsehead Nebula. I-Belt Nebula e-Orion iyilungu elibalulekile nelikhanyayo le-Orion Association enkulu.

Ososayensi bachaza ukuthi izinga lokushisa lalesi sifunda lingalinganiswa kusetshenziswa amasu amaningana anezilinganiso ze-radiometric ezinomthelela kumanani eliwaphethe namuhla ekucacisweni kwerekhodi le-Orion Belt Nebula.

I-Messier 78

Eyaziwa nangokuthi i-MGC 2068, yaziwa nangokuthi i-reflection nebula ngenxa ye-tint eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ekhanya ekukhanyeni kwayo, futhi Yatholwa nguPier Merchain ngo-1780.

I-nebula ekhanya kakhulu ebonakala kalula nganoma yisiphi isibonakude sokubona, iyikhaya lezinkanyezi ezimbili ezinomthwalo wemfanelo wokwenza ifu lothuli ngaphezu kukaMessier 78, elenza libonakale. Lezi zinkanyezi ezimbili ziqanjwe nge-HD 38563A ne-HD 38563B, ngokulandelana. Ngokusho kososayensi abacwaninga la ma-nebulae, kunenani elikhulu lamaplanethi angahlali muntu anezinsiza ezithile ezisatshalaliswa eduze nale nto, etholakala kwesokunxele esiphezulu sebhande le-Orion eningizimu.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-Horsehead Nebula nezici zayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.