I-Homo neanderthalensis

i-homo neanderthalensis

El I-Homo neanderthalensis okwaziwa nangokuthi i-Neanderthal uhlobo lomuntu okhule kakhulu eYurophu kusuka eminyakeni engaba ngu-230.000 edlule kuya eminyakeni engama-28.000 edlule. Yaziwa ngegama leNeanderthal futhi, ngokungafani nezinye izinhlobo zohlobo lweHomo, ithuthukiswe ngokuphelele futhi ihlala ezwenikazi laseYurophu.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, imvelaphi nokuvela kwe I-Homo neanderthalensis.

Umsuka weHomo neanderthalensis

indoda yase-neanderthal

Owomdabu waseYurophu, sekutholakele ubufakazi bokuthi buqhamuka kwabakwaHeidelbergs, abafika eYurophu bevela e-Afrika ngesikhathi se-Middle Pleistocene. Ngokomongo wokuziphendukela kwemvelo komuntu, kunamashumi eminyaka obudlelwano noHomo sapiens, noma kungacaci. Ukuhlaziywa okuphelele kwamadiphozi atholakele kwenziwe futhi kunokungabaza. Into ejwayelekile kunazo zonke ukuthi ziyizinhlobo ezimbili ezihlukene, yize zingezinhlobo ezifanayo, zahlala ngasikhathi sinye.

Ingabe lolu hlobo lomehluko phakathi kwabantu noHomo sapiens ngesakhiwo se-anatomical. Amandla obuchopho makhulu kakhulu, makhulu kakhulu kunawabantu banamuhla. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu esenza ochwepheshe bangabaze imbangela yokuqothulwa kwalo. Umbono ovelele uphakamisa ukuthi bakhungathekile yizinombolo zamaHomo sapiens avela e-Afrika.

Siyazi ukuthi leli zwekazi liyisizinda sobuntu, ngoba yizinhlobo zethu ezivela kuleli zwekazi. Kusukela lapho, okhokho besintu bandisa kwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba futhi babusa ngokuphelele. Enkambisweni yokuziphendukela kwemvelo, awuwedwa.

Ngale ndlela, abantu bezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zohlobo olufanayo bangavela eYurophu. AmaNeanderthal banekhono lokuba uhlobo oluvelele. Ngesikhathi seqhwa, izinhlobo ezivela kuzo kwadingeka zishintshe indawo ezihlala kuyo. Ngenxa yamakhaza ashubisa umnkantsha kanye nezimo ezingezinhle zemvelo, lokhu kubaphoqe ukuthi bathuthele eningizimu. Emakhulwini eminyaka adlule, izimo ezahlukahlukene zokuhlukaniswa ziye zaholela esidingweni sokuzivumelanisa nokuholela ekuguqulweni kwama-hominids.

Ngemuva kokuphela kweminyaka yeqhwa, baqala ukufana namaNeanderthal. Lapha kulapho ziguquka zisuka kohlobo olulodwa ziye kolunye. Nakhu ukuthi I-Homo neanderthalensis.

Abantu be- I-Homo neanderthalensis

ukuthuthukiswa komuntu

Yize sekunesikhathi eside ikhona, ayikaze ibe nabantu abaningi. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi phakathi neminyaka engama-200.000 iphila emhlabeni, inani labantu lalingadluli ku-7.000. Lesi yisibalo esincane kakhulu, ngoba noma yiliphi idolobha elincane namuhla linabahlali abaningi. Isikhathi esikhazimulayo salolu hlobo senzeka eminyakeni engaba ngu-100.000 XNUMX edlule. Amathuluzi atholakele avumela ososayensi ukuthi baqinisekise ukuthi banamakhono amakhulu ekuthuthukiseni ubuhlakani.

Yize inani labo lincane, izinsalela ezihlakazeke kakhulu zitholakele, okukhombisa ukuthi zitholakala kulo lonke izwekazi laseYurophu. Abanye ochwepheshe bakholelwa ukuthi bebengafinyelela e-Asia Ephakathi. Ubudlelwano phakathi kwamaNeanderthals noHomo sapiens kwesinye isikhathi iphikisana nomqondo wokuziphendukela kwemvelo okuqondile. Isimo samanje sehluke kakhulu.

Izinhlobo eziningana zalolu hlobo ziye zabelana ngomhlaba ezifundeni ezahlukahlukene futhi zihlala ndawonye kwezinye izindawo. AmaNeanderthal ayehlala eYurophu, UHomo sapiens wayehlala e-Afrika kanti ezinye izinhlobo ezinjengeHomo erectus zeza empumalanga.

Izindlela zokucwaninga ezisetshenziselwa ukufunda kabanzi ngalezi zinhlobo zihamba ibanga elide ekwambuleni ukubukeka kwabantu. Ubuchwepheshe bokuhlaziya i-DNA. Njengoba sonke sazi, lapho uHomo sapiens eshiya i-Afrika, amaHomo sapiens namaNeanderthal ahlala eYurophu. Kepha kuncane okwaziwayo ngokuhlangana kwabo. Ngenxa yocwaningo olushicilelwe ku-Neanderthal genome, siyazi ukuthi abantu basenayo cishe i-3% ye-Neanderthal DNA. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kunokubhanqa phakathi kwalezi zinhlobo ezimbili, noma ngabe kunganjani.

Ukuqala kokuhlanganiswa phakathi kwalezi zinhlobo ezimbili kuthathe isikhathi eside kakhulu kunalokho obekucatshangwa ngaphambili. Cishe eminyakeni eyizi-100.000 XNUMX eyedlule, abantu balezi zinhlobo ezimbili babekhona endaweni efanayo. Eminye imibuthano yesayensi isaphikisana ngokuqothulwa kwamaNeanderthal. Kunemibono ethile, kepha ayikho engatholwa njengeyiyo. Ukuvela kwemininingwane emisha kubonakala kudlula umzuzu oqondile lapho uhlobo lunyamalala.

Kulinganiselwa ukuthi lapho iYurophu iqala ukuphola ngokuphawulekayo, iqala ukunyamalala, okuhumusha ekwehleni kwemithombo yemvelo. Mayelana nesizathu sokunyamalala kwakhe, abanye ochwepheshe baveze ukuthi kungenzeka kube wukushintsha kwesimo sezulu esisanda kusho. Abanye ochwepheshe bathi isizathu sokunyamalala kwamaNeanderthals kungenzeka ukuthi kungenxa yokufika kwamaHomo sapiens. Le mbono ayisekelwe kahle, ngoba sibonile ukuthi kukhona isiphambano phakathi kwabo.

Ngakho-ke, i-hypothesis yokugcina evumeleke kakhulu eye yazama ukufakazelwa yilokho inani lamaHomo sapiens lingaphezulu kwe-10 kunenani lamaNeanderthals. Lokhu kubangele ukuncintisana kwemithombo yemvelo kanti ezinye izifo zithinte amaNeanderthals kuneHomo sapiens. Ukuze senze lokhu, sifaka isiphambano phakathi kwalezi zinhlobo ezimbili, okusho ukunyamalala kohlobo lwangaphambilini.

Curiosities

isiko le-homo neanderthalensis

Phakathi kwezinsalela zaseNeanderthal ezitholakele, sithole ukuthi ezinye zazo zinikeza imininingwane eyanele yokuqonda izici zazo zomzimba. Bazivumelanisa namakhaza ngoba kwakudingeka baphile endaweni eyayinenkathi yokugcina yeqhwa. Lokhu kubaphoqa ukuthi bazijwayeze isimo sezulu esibanda kakhulu ukuze baphile. Kulezi zinguquko, sithola ukuthi isikhathi siyancipha. Ikhala liphinde libanzi ukuze likwazi ukucosha iphunga lisuka kude kakhulu. Abazange bavelele ekuphakameni kwabo ngoba bekukhona ukuphakama okumaphakathi kwamamitha ayi-1.65.

Yize ekuqaleni bekucatshangwa ukuthi Ukudla kwaseNeanderthal ngokuyisisekelo kwakungukudlaUcwaningo lwakamuva lukhombisile ukuthi ukudla kwabo kuhlukile futhi kuvunyelaniswa nemvelo. Kubandakanya ama-mollusk, izinhlanzi, izimvu zamanzi, izimfudu zasolwandle nezinyoni, kanye nezithelo nemifino ecebile (cishe ama-80% wokudla kwabo).

Bazi umlilo futhi bawusebenzisa ekhishini, futhi i-pharmacology eyisidina kakhulu, okubandakanya amagxolo kapoplar njengemithi yokuqeda izinhlungu zemvelo. Iqiniso elibalulekile ukuthi inhlabathi yayo ikhombisa uhlobo oluthile lomkhuba wokudla abantu, okusobala ukuthi awuhlobene nesikhathi esinciphile.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge I-Homo neanderthalensis.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.