I-Heisenberg biography

izifundo ngomgomo wokungaqiniseki

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngomunye wososayensi abamake ngaphambi nangemva emhlabeni we-physics. Ingabe mayelana UWerner Karl Heisenberg. Wayengumcabangi nesayensi yemvelaphi yaseJalimane owathuthukisa imisebenzi ethile ngokubaluleka okukhulu emhlabeni we-quantum physics. Baziwa kakhulu ngokungaqiniseki noma ngomgomo wokuzibophezela olethe intuthuko eminingi kwi-physics.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi nge-biography ka-Heisenberg kanye nezinto azenzayo.

I-Heisenberg biography

Heisenberg

Lo sosayensi wazalelwa eWürzburg ngoDisemba 5, 1901. Kusukela esemncane wayebandakanyeka kwezemfundo njengoba ubaba wakhe wayenguprofesa wezomlando. Ukuba nothisha emndenini kwenza uHeisenberg waba nentshisekelo emhlabeni wesayensi. Ufunde eNyuvesi yaseMunich waba ngudokotela ngo-1923. Ukuqeqeshwa kwakhe kwakuhambisana nobuntu obubalulekile obuvela emhlabeni we-physics njengoNiels Bohr.

Ngalo sosayensi ukusebenza njengomsizi sibonga kwisibonelelo esivela eRockefeller Foundation. Kwakungo-1927 lapho ekugcineni aqala khona ukusebenza njengoprofesa e-University of Leipzig. Lapha kule nyuvesi waqala ukufundisa usihlalo we-theoretical physics. Njengoba wayenguthisha eyunivesithi, wabuye wakhuphula izifundo zakhe nocwaningo ukuze enze amagalelo athile emhlabeni wesayensi.

Ngangimazi mathupha u-Albert Einstein ngenkathi esebenza eCopenhagen Institute for Theoretical Physics. Ngalesi sikhathi wayesebenza kakhulu ocwaningweni lwakhe futhi enza imishini ye-matrix. Ngemuva kophenyo oluhlukahlukene, lo mshini we-matrix wamholela ekwakhiweni kwemishini ye-quantum.

Eminyakeni eminingi kamuva, ngo-1935 wayefuna ukungena eNyuvesi yaseMunich esikhundleni sikaSommerfield. Le ndoda yayithatha umhlalaphansi ngaleso sikhathi, kodwa ukuqokwa kwayo kwavinjelwa amaNazi. Bakhomba nokuthi iHeisenberg wasebenza nabathumeli abeza abacwaningi abangamaJuda abanjengo-Einstein noNiels Bohr. Kodwa-ke, eminyakeni eminingana kamuva wasamukela isicelo samaNazi sokuqondisa ukwakhiwa kwebhomu le-athomu ayephethe kulo njengomqondisi esikhungweni seKaiser Wilhem. Mhlawumbe yimizamo embalwa yokwakha i-reactor yenuzi engaqhuma ngokushesha ukuqhuma, kepha ulwazi lwayo lwalungathuthuki ngokwanele lokho. Ngakho-ke, akakwazanga ukukufeza.

Isimiso sokungaqiniseki saseHeisenberg

uthisha we-quantum physics

Le ndoda yaziwa ngalesi simiso sokungaqiniseki esaba ngumphenyo oluningi. Kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakho njengomcwaningi, uphenyo lwakho oluningi belungaholela ekwakhiweni kwezikhali zenuzi, yize engakwenzanga ngezizathu zokuziphatha. Ucwaningo lwakhe olubaluleke kakhulu kwaba ukwakhiwa komgomo wokungaqiniseki. Lesi simiso sisetshenziswe abanye ososayensi kuze kube namuhla.

Umgomo kaHeisenberg wokungaqiniseki ukhombisa ukuthi akunakwenzeka ukwazi kahle isikhathi nesimo se-athomu. Ngokusungula lezi zitatimende, waveza ezinye izindlela ezihlobene nobukhulu, isikhathi namandla. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukwazile ukuguqula ezinye izihloko zemibono ye-classical eyayisekelwe ekuqinisekisweni kwe-physics. Ngokubheka ukuthi ama-athomu akha izakhiwo ahamba ngokuqhubekayo, akunakwenzeka ukunquma isikhundla sazo ngqo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uHeisenberg, ngokususelwa ku-quantum physics, ingachaza ukubumbana okubukekayo kwe-athomu ye-hydrogen ne-helium athomu. Ngenxa yalezi zifundo wawina iNobel Prize ku-physics ngo-1932. Umsebenzi wakhe waba neqhaza elikhulu kwezazi nge-astronautics kwazise wabikezela ukuthi kuzoba khona i-hydrogen ezifundazweni ezimbili. Enye yazo kwakuyi-orthohydrogen kanti enye kwakuyi-parahydrogen. Zombili ziphathelene nesiqondiso sokunyakaza esithathwa yi-nuclei yama-athomu.

Ukusebenza Epsilon

Ngemuva kokuphela kwempi, uHeisenberg waboshwa kanye nabanye ososayensi baseJalimane epulazini elibizwa ngeFarm Hall eNgilandi. Inhloso enkulu yokuqasha kwakuwukuthola ukuthi imisebenzi yokwakha izikhali ze-athomu ithuthuke kangakanani. Ngemuva kokuqhuma kwebhomu laseHiroshima, uHeisenberg unikeze ezinye iziboshwa inkulumo ukuze zichaze inani eliqondile le-uranium ebelidingeka ukwenza ibhomu elinjalo.

Njengoba babebeke inqwaba yemibhobho efihliwe kuyo yonke indlu, kwaqinisekiswa ukuthi uHeisenberg wayazi inani le-uranium ayidingayo ukwenza isikhali senuzi kepha wayengafuni ukukwenza ngezizathu zokuziphatha.

Ukuthunyelwa komgomo wokungaqiniseki

UWerner Heisenberg

Ukwakhiwa komgomo wokungaqiniseki kusho ukuthi ukunemba okukhulu kakhulu lapho sazi khona isimo senhlayiya noma ukunemba okuncane sizokwazi ukuthi liyini ijubane lalo futhi okuphambene nalokho. Lo mphumela we-quantum udidekile kaningi ngomphumela wombukeli. Lo mphumela ungasetshenziswa ezinhlelweni eziningi zomzimba kepha akunakwenzeka ukuwubona ngaphandle kokuwuguqula empeleni. Isibonelo salokhu ukuthi Awukwazi ukukala ingcindezi kusondo ngaphandle kokuvumela umoya othile ukuba uphume. Ngeke sazi ingcindezi yamathayi ngqo ngaphambi kokufaka umlomo wombhobho wokuhlanza.

Isimiso sikaHeisenberg sokungaqiniseki sikubeke kwacaca ukuthi asihlangene ngalutho nenqubo yokubheka. Uthe ukuzimisela kungukulahleka okuyisisekelo kwazo zonke izinhlelo ze-quantum noma ngabe ziyabonwa noma cha. Futhi kungumphumela wobumbano obukhona phakathi kwegagasi nenhlayiya. Uma kungashiwo ukuthi lesi simiso sokungaqiniseki singenye yamafomula ahunyushwe kabi kunawo wonke emlandweni njengoba kucatshangwa ukuthi kunemiphumela yefilosofi. Isetshenziswe njenge isivivinyo senkululeko yokuzikhethela futhi njengesivivinyo sethuba lokudalelwa. Isetshenziselwe izinhloso zocingo noma izinjongo ze-parapsychology.

I-athikili lapho azisa khona ngefilosofi yama-indeterminist eyaqala ngo-1927, yasho okulandelayo:

"Ekubunjweni okunamandla komthetho oyimbangela" Uma sazi kahle manje, singabikezela ikusasa, "akusona isiphetho, kodwa kunalokho umbono ongamanga. Ngeke sazi, ngenxa yezizathu zomthetho, okwamanje kuyo yonke imininingwane yayo.

Ekugcineni, uHeisenberg wadlula emhlabeni ngoFebhuwari 1976.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nale Heisenberg nokusebenzisa kwakhe.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.