Cavendish

UHenry Cavendish

Emhlabeni wesayensi kunabantu abaningi abahlaziye iminikelo ethokozisayo eyenze lo mhlaba waqhubekela phambili. Namuhla sizokhuluma ngakho UHenry Cavendish, isazi sefilosofi nesokhemisi saseBrithani owaba ngowokuqala ukuhlukanisa ukuba khona kwe-carbon dioxide ne-hydrogen emoyeni. Waqokwa waba yiFellow of the Royal Society ngo-1760 wafunda eCambridge University.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela yonke i-biography nokuxhashazwa kukaHenry Cavendish.

UHenry Cavendish Biography

UCavendish nokutholwa kwakhe

Lo sosayensi wahlonishwa ngokushicilela umsebenzi owaziwa ngegama elithi Experiments emoyeni. Kulo msebenzi, wathi umoya uqukethe inhlanganisela yomoya-mpilo ne-nitrogen kusilinganiso esingu-1: 4. Iphinde yafaka nobufakazi bokuthi amanzi abengeyona into kodwa eyinhlanganisela. Kuze kube yileso sikhathi, bekucatshangwa ukuthi amanzi ayinto eyodwa eyenziwe ngamanzi kuphela. Noma kunjalo, kwakunguCavendish owathi amanzi ayenziwe nge-hydrogen ne-oxygen. Wakwazi ukukhombisa lokhu ngesinye sezivivinyo zakhe lapho akwazi khona ukuhlanganisa i-nitric acid namanzi.

Imisebenzi yakhe ibiphawuleka kakhulu emkhakheni kagesi ngokwethula umqondo wokuba namandla, ukukala amandla kanye nokukwazi ukulindela umthetho ka-Ohm. Wayengomunye wososayensi bokuqala ukukwazi ukuthola ubukhulu nobukhulu beplanethi yethu ngokusebenzisa ibhalansi ye-torsion.

Okuwukuphela kwesikhombo u-Isaac Asimov asenza ngoHenry Cavendish kwaba okulandelayo: «Wayengungqondongqondo ophusile nophazamisekile emzimbeni owayehlala futhi efa ecishe abe yedwa. Kodwa wenza ezinye izivivinyo ezithakazelisa kakhulu emlandweni wesayensi. ' Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi ibinzana lika-Asimov likwenza wazi okuningi ngempilo yeCavendish. Wayengumuntu ome njengeqanda owachitha impilo yakhe yonke ezinikele cishe kuphela ekucwaningeni isayensi. Futhi kubonakala sengathi umbono wakhe wendawo yonke ukuthi wawenziwe ngobuningi bezinto ezingalinganiswa, zifakwe izinombolo futhi zithengiswe. Ngaleso sikhathi ngase nginemibono embalwa ngomhlaba wesayensi jikelele.

Izilinganiso nemisebenzi

ulinganise umhlaba

UCavendish wazazisa kakhulu izilinganiso njengoba wayefuna ukuba nemininingwane enembile ngaso sonke isikhathi. Uzamile ukulinganisa zonke izibalo kunani eliqondile ukwazi ngokujula izici zezinto. Njengoba ibingenayo i-ammeter futhi ingenalutho ebingayinika inani likagesi ohamba ngezintambo, ibisetshenziswa ngokuzithoba kepha yenze amatafula acaciswe kahle. Lokho kusho ukuthi, UCavendish uthole ukushaqeka futhi bazokwenza izingalo emzimbeni wakhe ngesikhathi sokuhlolwa ukwazi futhi uqaphele ukuthi ubukhulu bezintambo bebungakanani.

Umsebenzi wokuqala walo sosayensi wabhekana ne-arsenic. Bonke ososayensi abaziyo uCavendish bathi uthando lwakhe lwesayensi lwalumsulwa ngokuphelele. Akakaze akhathazeke ngokuthi ngabe okutholakele kwakhe kushicilelwe yini okukodwa, ukuthi ngabe kufakiwe noma cha, noma nganoma yini enye ngaphandle kokwanelisa izifiso zakhe. Nakhu ukuthi ufunda kanjani futhi uthuthuka kanjani kuphenyo. Ngenxa yalolu thando olumsulwa lwesayensi, okuningi empumelelo yakhe kwakungaziwa iminyaka futhi kwatholakala eminyakeni eminingana ngemuva kokufa kwakhe. Kodwa-ke, ngaphambi kokuba impumelelo yakhe ingaziwa, minaUSaac Asimov utshele bonke ozakwabo eRoyal Society ngokuxhashazwa kwalo sosayensi.

Ngo-1766 wayephethe ukudlulisa okutholakele kokuqala njengomsebenzi ayewenzile ngegesi evuthayo eyatholakala ekuphenduleni kwensimbi ne-asidi. Lo gesi wawutholwe nguBoyle noHales phambilini, kepha kwakunguCavendish owathunywa ukuba abe ngowokuqala ukuhlola izakhiwo zawo. Kwase kuyiminyaka engama-20 kamuva lapho uLavoisier abiza le gesi i-hydrogen.

UHenry wayengusosayensi wokuqala ukuthola ukuthi umthamo othile wamagesi ahlukene kwakudingeka ulinganiswe ukuze kutholakale ubukhulu bawo. Yile ndlela akuthola ngayo lokho i-hydrogen kwakuyigesi elula ikakhulukazi eyayiyi-1/14 kuphela ukuminyana komoya. Njengoba elula futhi evutha kalula, wayekholelwa ukuthi wayeyihlukanisile i-phlogiston.

Ukuhlolwa kukaHenry Cavendish

ukuhlolwa kwe-cavendish

Kumele kukhunjulwe ukuthi, ngalezo zinsuku, kwakusemfashinini ukwenza izivivinyo ezahlukahlukene ngomoya. Lokhu kudale ukuthi ngonyaka ka-1785 yenze izinhlansi zikagesi ziwele emoyeni futhi izokwakha inhlanganisela phakathi kwe-nitrogen ne-oxygen ukuze incibilikise i-oxide ebivele emanzini. Ngenxa yalokhu kuhlolwa, wakwazi ukuthola ukwakheka kwe-nitric acid. Wengeze i-nitrogen eyengeziwe ngenhloso yokukwazi ukusebenzisa wonke umoya-mpilo owawukhona ngasikhathi sinye. Wakwazi ukuqinisekisa ukuthi lokhu akunakwenzeka. Futhi ingabe lokho kuhlala kunjalo wayenengxenye encane yegesi elingahlanganisiwe elalisele, noma yini ayenzayo.

Wabe esekwazi ukuthola ukuthi umoya onayo wawunenani elincane legesi okwakudingeka ukuthi lingene futhi limelane ukuze lingasabeli nawo wonke amanye amagesi. Wabuye wathola igesi esiyazi namuhla njenge-argon. Namuhla siyazi ukuthi umkhathi iqukethe i-1% argon eyigesi engena ngaphakathi futhi engaphenduli nganoma yini. Siyazi ukuthi igesi enhle. Lesi silingo seCavendish sanganakwa iminyaka eyikhulu uRamsay waze wakwazi ukusilandela igxathu negxathu wasiphinda futhi.

Ukuhlolwa okumangazayo kakhulu kukaCavendish kufaka phakathi imbulunga enkulu ayisebenzisile ukwenza lokho manje okwaziwa ngokuthi ukuhlolwa kweCavendish. Ngalesi silingo wakwazi ukwazi ukuthi ubukhulu bomhlaba buyini futhi, njengoba umthamo weplanethi ubusaziwa, ukuthi ikwenzeni "ukukala" uMhlaba.

Wayenezinombolo eziningi zokushicilelwa kuwo wonke umlando wakhe futhi wakhuphula ijubane lapho ejoyina iRoyal Society kanye nabanye ososayensi ababesekela ukuhlolwa kwakhe. Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, lona ngusosayensi owayenothando olumsulwa ngesayensi futhi kwaba ilukuluku lakhe kuphela elamqhuba ukuthi aqhubeke nokuphenya nokuthola izinto ezintsha.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoHenry Cavendish nakho konke akwenzayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.