I-cartography yomlando

ukubaluleka komlando wokudwetshwa kwamabalazwe

Lapho sikhuluma ngemithombo ehlukahlukene yomlando nezehlakalo ezenzekile, kwesinye isikhathi siyakhohlwa ukubaluleka kwamamephu. I- i-cartography yomlando ibhekele funda ngokubaluleka kokuthuthukiswa kwamamephu kuwo wonke umlando. Amamephu asetshenziswa njengomphelelisi wokuhlaziywa nolwazi lwezinqubo zomlando. Ngakho-ke akukho lutho ngokubaluleka kwe-cartography yomlando ukutadisha nokuphenya umlando.

Kule ndatshana sizokukhombisa ukuthi yiziphi izici zomlando wokudwetshwa kwamabalazwe nokubaluleka kwawo.

Ukubonakaliswa kwe-cartography yomlando

i-cartography yomlando

Kukhona ukutolika okuningi kweqiniso lokuma komhlaba owaziwayo kuwo wonke umlando. Okwe-ejenti yasendulo neyasendulo kunamamephu amaningi akha imodeli yendawo yonke yokuveza nokucabanga komhlaba ngemephu. Kukhona iqiniso eliphindwe kathathu elivezwe ebalazweni: imibono, imidwebo kanye nokuma kwezwe. Kulesi simo, indawo inesici somzimba nesomuntu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi cishe yonke imiphakathi isebenzise amamephu njengezinsimbi ezifanele ukumela umhlaba owaziwayo kanye nomhlaba ocatshangelwayo. Ngale ndlela kungenzeka ukuthi kwenziwe umbono ohleliwe wesikhungo semvelo yabantu.

Kuwo wonke umlando, amamephu abonakele ukuthi amanye anezici zawo, amanye anezici zangempela kanti kwesinye isikhathi bekucatshangelwa okungajwayelekile futhi okulula kokucabanga kwabo. Kusukela endulo ekude kakhulu umuntu uye wasizwa isidingo sokwenza imidwebo namamephu ukuba nesikhungo esivumelekile esisebenza ukukhombisa noma ukudlulisa imininingwane mayelana nokuqhakaza komhlaba. Izindawo esezithuthuke kakhulu ngendlela ye-cartographic zaziyi-3: iMesopotamiya, iGrisi neRoma.

Okungaphezulu noma okuncane ngonyaka we-3000 BC, ezinye izici eziphakeme zempucuko zaqala ukuvela ezindaweni zecrescent evundile futhi kulapho zenzeka khona. izifundo zokuqala zezinkanyezi kanye nokubonakaliswa kwe-cartographic. Ziyizibonakaliso ezindala kakhulu ze-cartographic esizaziyo. KwakungamaSumeriya nama-Akkadiya enza umdwebo wendawo. Futhi baklame amabalazwe amadala amadolobha, omakhelwane, imisele, noma izakhiwo. Imephu endala kunazo zonke efundwe ukudwetshwa kwamabalazwe omlando itholakala phakathi konyaka we-2700 nowe-2200 BC.Ihambisana netabhulethi ebizwa ngokuthi yiNuzzi futhi ibinendlela yokuphatha.

Ngaleso sikhathi, abaseMesopotamiya babecabanga ukuthi isibhakabhaka nomhlaba kwakha amadiski amabili ayizicaba futhi asekelwa emanzini.

Ulwandle emabalazweni e-cartographic

Kumele kukhunjulwe ukuthi umlando wobalazwe, ulwandle lwaluyinto ebaluleke kakhulu ekuthuthukiseni i-geography ye-cartography. Uhambo, iningi lalo olokuhweba, bekuyilolo olunikeze imininingwane ebalulekile yezindawo ezisogwini, ukuba khona kwamahangech, ukuqondiswa kwemimoya nemilomo yemifula, phakathi kokunye.

Lapha kulapho kwatholwa khona imininingwane eminingi ukukwazi ukuqhuba ezokuhweba phakathi kwamadolobha. Iqembu lokuqala lomuntu elalikwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yalo yezomnotho endaweni ethile kwakungamaGreki asesigabeni sakudala. Izithunywa futhi zafinyelela emisebenzini ephezulu kusukela amakoloni amaningi asungulwa ezingxenyeni ezisenyakatho zoLwandle i-Aegean, ogwini olusentshonalanga naseningizimu yoLwandle Olumnyama, eningizimu yenhlonhlo yase-Italy naseSicily.

Yize bekunolwazi oluthile lokuma komhlaba, izindlela ezazisetshenziswa yilawo maGriki ngokudweba imephu zazingezinhle neze. Imidwebo yezemidwebo yomlando igxile ekutadisheni ukuthi amamephu okuqala enziwa kanjani. Kubo, umhlaba wawakhiwe njenge-disk eyisicaba futhi wazungezwa yimisinga esheshayo yoMfula i-Ocean. Imikhawulo yomhlaba ngaleso sikhathi eyayaziwa kwakungu ugu olusempumalanga yeMedithera.

Eminyakeni eminingi kamuva, inkathi yamaGreki yabonakala njengoba kwakukhona inqubekela phambili ephawulekayo kwezesayensi ngqo. Kulokhu kuthuthukiswa kwesayensi kwakusebenza kahle emkhakheni wezindawo. Ukuma kwezwe kwakukhona e-Alexandria, e-Asia Minor naseGrisi. Phakathi nekhulu lesi-XNUMX nelesi-XNUMX kwaba nokwanda okukhulu emsebenzini wezindawo, ikakhulukazi e-Alexandria. Kulapha lapho abafundi abagqame kakhulu besayensi ngqo kanye nokuphishekela ubuhlakani baqala ukusebenzisa indlela yezinkanyezi yokunquma kwezindawo. Lokhu kwanikeza isisekelo esibalulekile sokulinganisa umhlaba kanye nokwakhiwa komlando wokudwetshwa kwamabalazwe ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lesithathu leminyaka.

Ukubaluleka kwe-cartography yomlando

U-Eratosthenes waseCyrene nguyena owabala isilinganiso seMeridian yoMhlaba. Kulapha nokuthi kwenzeka kanjani ukufeza ukucacisa okunikeze umfutho ophawulekayo kwezokuma kwezwe. Ngenxa yalokhu kubalwa, kungaqalwa ucwaningo lwezibalo nolwe-gastronomic, oluqoqa yonke imisebenzi yabandulelayo. Lapha kwagcizelelwa ukuthi umhlaba wawungumhlaba onezigxobo ezimbili nenkabazwe. Umklamo womhlaba nokulungiswa kwawo kwakudalwe emigqeni ye-latitude ne-longitude, ebahlukanisa babe izingxenye ezinhlanu: izindawo ezimbili ezibandayo, ezinye izindawo ezimbili ezipholile nendawo efudumele.

Ngihlanganisa lo mklamo ne-base meridian ngokuya ngemodeli yokuhlola kusukela yomibili imigqa yeqa eRhodes. IRhodes kwakuyisiqhingi esasizoba isikhungo se-cartographic kanye nendawo yokukhomba yomhlaba wonke owakhiwe. Namuhla i-zero meridian idlula eLondon. U-Eratosthenes wakwazi ukuqedela ibalazwe ngokudweba ukufana okuningana okuwela izindawo zomhlahlandlela wakhe we-meridian. Kwakucatshangelwa futhi ama-meridians ahambelana namadolobha ahlangene noma adume kabi. Wayefuna ukwazi ukushintsha umbono ohlangothini olulodwa wohambo ngokunye ukumiswa okwenziwe ngakubili.

I-cartography yomlando ikhombise u-Eratosthenes njengomvikeli wokuhlala kuyo yonke indawo enesimo sezulu futhi kwatholakala ukuthi kungenzeka ukusuka e-Hispania uye eNdiya elisemngceleni we-Afrika. Lokhu kungenye yezenzo ezithakazelisa kakhulu lapho i-cartography yomlando yaqala ukuthonya khona. Kamuva eNkathini Ephakathi, lapho kuzalwa inkolo nobuKristu, inkolelo yokuthi umhlaba uyisicaba yaguqula konke ukudwetshwa kwamabalazwe.

Namuhla, namuhla, ngenxa yeziphuphutheki sinombono ophelele ngeplanethi yethu, ngakho-ke sinemidwebo enembile kunazo zonke engaba khona.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomlando wokudwetshwa kwamabalazwe nokubaluleka kwawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.