I-Biomass, konke odinga ukukwazi ngalo mandla avuselelekayo

Ugesi ngezinto eziphilayo

Into yokuqala okufanele uyazi ukuthi i-biomass ayilutho nje izinto eziphilayo zezitshalo noma imvelaphi yezilwane, imfucuza nemfucuza ephilayo ifakiwe lapha, okuyi unesibopho sokusetshenziswa ukukhiqiza amandla.

Isizathu singenxa yokuthi izitshalo ziguqula amandla akhazimulayo elanga abe ngamandla amakhemikhali ngokusebenzisa i- i-photosynthesis futhi ingxenye yalo mandla igcinwa ngendlela yezinto eziphilayo, esingazisebenzisa ngokunenzuzo.

Njengamanje, le ncazelo elandelayo ye-biomass yamukelwa:

"I-Biomass ithathwa njengeqembu lemikhiqizo yamandla avuselelekayo kanye nezinto zokusetshenziswa eziqhamuka ezintweni eziphilayo ezenziwe ngezindlela zebhayoloji".

Kungenxa yalesi sizathu ukuthi umqondo wamandla okubasa kanye nezinto zokwakha eziphilayo ezitholwe kubo njengeplastikhi nemikhiqizo eminingi yokwenziwa ayikho endaweni encazelweni ye-biomass.

Yize la mafutha kanye nezinto ezenziwe ngezinto eziphilayo zinemvelaphi yezinto eziphilayo, ukwakheka kwazo kwenzeka ezikhathini ezedlule.

Ngakho-ke i-Biomass ingamandla avuselelekayo avela kumthombo welanga nge-photosynthesis yezitshalo.

ukuthi amandla we-photosynthesis akhiqizwa kanjani

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngokusho kwe- Isiqondisi 2003/30 / EC i-biomass yile:

"Ingxenyenamba yomkhiqizo odoti kanye nezinsalela ezivela kwezolimo, amahlathi kanye nezimboni ezihlobene nazo, kanye nengxenyana ebolayo yemfucumfucu yezimboni kanye nomasipala."

Ngokwalokho esikubonayo ukuthi ngokujwayelekile, noma iyiphi incazelo ye-biomass ihlanganisa amagama ama-2 ikakhulukazi; evuselelekayo futhi ephilayo.

I-Biomass njengomthombo wamandla

Kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo, umuntu usebenzise i-biomass njengomthombo wamandla ukwenza imisebenzi yakhe yansuku zonke.

Selokhu kwaqala ukusetshenziswa kwamafutha ezimbiwa phansi, i-biomass yayikhohliwe endizeni ephansi, lapho umnikelo wawo ekukhiqizweni kwamandla ayisisekelo wawungabalulekile.

Namuhla, ngenxa yezici ezahlukahlukene, i-biomass ibuye yaqala kabusha njengomthombo wamandla.

Izici ezibhekele ukuvuselela i-biomass njengomthombo wamandla yilezi:

  • Intengo ekhuphukayo kawoyela.
  • Ukwandiswa komkhiqizo wezolimo.
  • Udinga ukufuna ukusetshenziswa okunye ekukhiqizweni kwezolimo.
  • Ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu.
  • Ithuba lokusebenzisa ulwazi lwesayensi nobuchwepheshe ukwenza ngcono inqubo yokukhiqiza amandla.
  • Uhlaka lomnotho oluhle lokuthuthukiswa kwezitshalo ezisebenzisa i-biomass njengophethiloli, ngenxa yoxhaso lokukhiqiza olutholwe yizitshalo eziphehla amandla ngalo mthombo.
  • Ubunzima bokulawula ukuthuthukisa ezinye izinhlobo zamaphrojekthi, kushiya i-biomass njengenye indlela enengqondo kunazo zonke yokwenza utshalomali lwezomnotho lube nenzuzo.

Izinhlobo ze-biomass

I-biomass esetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwamandla itholakala ezinsaleleni zokuxhashazwa kwehlathi, kusuka ezimbonini zenguquko yokuqala neyesibili yezinkuni, kusuka engxenyeni engokwemvelo yemfucumfucu yasedolobheni, kusuka kudoti ovela emfuyweni, kusuka imikhiqizo yezolimo neyamahlathi, izitshalo zamandla, lezo ezimiselwe kuphela ukuxhashazwa kwazo ukuthola i-biomass.

Ngokuvamile, i-biomass itholakala kunoma yimuphi umkhiqizo we-organic osengozini yokusebenzisa amandla, yize lezi kuyizo eziyinhloko.

I-Biomass ehlukaniswe ngohlobo

I-biomass yemvelo

I-biomass yemvelo yilokho okukhiqizwe ku- imvelo yemvelo. Ukuxhashazwa okukhulu kwalesi sisetshenziswa akuhambisani nokuvikelwa kwemvelo, yize kungomunye wemithombo yamandla eyinhloko emazweni angathuthuki.

Le biomass yemvelo idalwe ngaphandle kokungenelela komuntu ukuyiguqula noma ukuyithuthukisa.

It imayelana ngokuyisisekelo mayelana izinsalela zehlathi:

  • Okutholakele kokuhlanzwa kwamahlathi kanye nokutshala kusasele
  • Izinkuni zokubasa kanye namagatsha
  • AmaConifers
  • Ngamaqabunga

Ama-biomass asalile

I-biomass eyinsalela iyilokho ekhiqizwa emisebenzini yabantu ezisebenzisa izinto eziphilayo. Ukuqedwa kwayo ezimweni eziningi kuyinkinga. Lolu hlobo lwe-biomass lunezinzuzo ezihambisanayo ekusetshenzisweni kwalo:

  • Kunciphisa ukungcola kanye nezingozi zomlilo.
  • Nciphisa isikhala sokulahla udoti.
  • Izindleko zokukhiqiza zingaba ngaphansi.
  • Izindleko zokuhamba zingaba ngaphansi.
  • Gwema ukukhishwa kwe-CO2.
  • Khiqiza imisebenzi.
  • Kufaka isandla ekuthuthukisweni kwezindawo zasemakhaya.

Insalela ye-biomass nayo ihlukaniswe yaba uchungechunge lwezigaba ezishiwo ngezansi.

Insalela Yezolimo

Insalela yezolimo engasetshenziswanga ukusetshenziswa kwabantu ithathwa njengefanele ukusetshenziswa njenge-biomass ngezinjongo zamandla.

Lokhu kusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo yezolimo esetshenziswa ochungechungeni lokudla komuntu kubangele igama elingalungile elingalungile yokusetshenziswa kwe-biomass ngezinhloso zamandla, njengoba lokhu kusetshenziswa kusolwa ngokwenyuka kwezindleko zemikhiqizo ethile yezolimo eyisisekelo sokudla emazweni amaningi omhlaba wesithathu kanye nasemazweni asathuthuka.

Lezi zinsalela zezolimo zingasetshenziswa zombili njengophethiloli ezitshalweni ezikhiqiza ugesi futhi ziguqulwe zibe ngama-biofuels.

Izitshalo zamandla

Izitshalo zamandla okukhulunywe ngazo ngenhla yizitshalo ezithile ezinikezelwe kuphela ekukhiqizeni amandla.

Ngokungafani nezitshalo zendabuko zezolimo, izici zazo eziyinhloko zizo umkhiqizo ophezulu we-biomass nokuqina okuphezulu, kuvezwe ngezimpawu ezinjengokumelana nesomiso, izifo, ubungqabavu, ukukhula kusenesikhathi, amandla okuvuselela kabusha nokuzivumelanisa nezindawo eziseceleni.

Izitshalo zamandla zingafaka izilimo zendabuko (okusanhlamvu, umoba, imbewu kawoyela) nezingajwayelekile (i-cynara, i-pataca, amabele amnandi) okuyisihloko sezifundo eziningi ukunquma izidingo zabo zokutshalwa.

Izinqubo zokuguqulwa kwe-Biomass

Njengoba kubonwe ngenhla, izinhlobo eziningi zezinto ezifakiwe ngaphakathi komqondo we-biomass zivumela ukuthi nazo zisungule i- izinqubo ezahlukahlukene zenguquko yalesi biomass ibe ngamandla.

Izinqubo zokuguqulwa kwe-Biomass

Ngalesi sizathu, i-biomass ingaguqulwa ibe yizinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamandla ngokusebenzisa izinqubo ezahlukahlukene zokuguqula, lezi zinhlobo zamandla yilezi:

Ukushisa nomusi

Kungenzeka ukukhiqiza ukushisa nesitimu ngokushisa i-biomass noma i-biogas.

Ukushisa kungaba ngumkhiqizo oyinhloko wokushisa nokufaka izicelo zokupheka, noma kungaba umkhiqizo ovela ekukhiqizeni ugesi ezitshalweni ezikhiqiza ugesi nentuthu.

Uphethiloli onegesi

Ama-biogas akhiqizwa kuzinqubo zokugaya noma zokusebenzisa i-anaerobic angasetshenziswa ezinjinini zomlilo zangaphakathi zokukhiqiza ugesi, ukufudumeza nokulungisa isimo emkhakheni wasekhaya, wezohwebo nowezikhungo nasezimotweni eziguquliwe.

Ama-biofuel

Ukukhiqizwa kwama-biofuels afana ne-ethanol ne-biodiesel (ungabheka i-athikili Indlela yokwenza i-biosiesel eyenziwe ngokwenza) inamandla okushintsha amanani abalulekile ephethiloli ezinsaweni eziningi zezicelo zokuhamba.

Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-ethanol eBrazil kubonisile, iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-20, lokho ama-biofuels ayenzeka ngokwezobuchwepheshe ngezinga elikhulu.

E-United States nase-Europe umkhiqizo wabo uyanda futhi ziyamakethwa zixutshwe nemikhiqizo kaphethiloli.

Isibonelo, ingxube ebizwa nge-E20, equkethe u-20% ethanol no-80% kaphethiloli, iyasebenza ezinjinini eziningi zokuthungela.

Njengamanje, lolu hlobo lukaphethiloli luthola uhlobo oluthile lwe isibonelelo noma usizo lombuso, kepha, ngokuzayo, ngokwanda kwezitshalo zamandla kanye neminotho yezinga, ukwehliswa kwezindleko kungenza ukukhiqizwa kwabo kuncintisane.

Ugesi

Ugesi owenziwe nge-biomass ungamakethwa ngokuthi "amandla aluhlaza", kusukela lapho ayinikeli kumthelela wokushisa okushisayo ngoba ayikhishwa yi-carbon dioxide (CO2).

Lolu hlobo lwamandla lunganikeza izinketho ezintsha emakethe, ngoba ukwakheka kwalo kwezindleko kuzovumela abasebenzisi ukuthi basekele amazinga aphezulu okutshalwa kwezimali kubuchwepheshe obusebenzayo, okuzokhulisa imboni ye-bioenergy.

Co-generation (ukushisa nogesi)

Isizukulwane esibumbene sisho i- ukukhiqizwa ngasikhathi sinye komusi nogesi, lokho kungasetshenziswa ezinkambisweni eziningi zezimboni ezidinga zombili izinhlobo zamandla.

E-Central America, ngokwesibonelo, le nqubo ivame kakhulu embonini kashukela, lapho kungenzeka khona ukusizakala ngemfucumfucu yenqubo, ikakhulukazi i-bagasse.

Ngenxa yokwethembeka okuphezulu kwe-bagasse etholakalayo, ngokwesiko, ukuhlanganiswa komlingani kwenziwa kahle kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, eminyakeni yamuva nje kube nomkhuba wokwenza ngcono inqubo yokwenza ugesi omningi futhi kuthengiswe okusele kugridi kagesi.

Izinqubo ezingalandelwa ukwenza lolu shintsho zingahlukaniswa zibe ngokomzimba, i-physicochemical, i-thermochemical kanye ne-biological.

Umlilo ezitshalweni ze-biomass

Kalula nje, amandla omlilo ayindlela yokushesha yamakhemikhali, lapho ihlanganisa umoya-mpilo ovela emoyeni (yini i-oxidizer) ngezinto ezahlukahlukene zokuxhuma uphethiloli ngakho-ke kuvela ukukhululwa kokushisa.

Ngalesi sizathu, ukuze le nqubo yamakhemikhali yenzeke, lezi zimo ezi-4 kufanele zenzeke:

  1. Kufanele kube nesibalo esanele sikaphethiloli, okusho ukuthi i-biomass.
  2. Kumele yenze inani elanele lomoya womlilo, oqukethe umoya-mpilo odingekayo ukuze kuhlanganiswe noma kusabele ngophethiloli.
  3. Izinga lokushisa kufanele libe phezulu ngokwanele ukuze impendulo yenzeke futhi igcinwe. Uma izinga lokushisa lingadluli inani elithile, elibizwa nge-flash point, i-oxidizer nophethiloli akusabeli.
  4. Kufanele kube khona isiqalisi somlilo, imvamisa ilangabi elivele likhona. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ezinye izinto zivame ukubamba iqhaza ekukhanyeni kohlelo lokushisa, ngisho namanye amafutha.

Ukwenziwa kwe-biomass

I-biomass, ngaphambi kokuqhubeka nokushisa kwayo kubhayela, kufanele ilandelwe inqubo yangaphambilini yokulungiselela, lula inqubo yokusabela phakathi kukaphethiloli ne-oxidizer.

Le nqubo yenza lula ukuvutha komlilo ngoba ngokuyisisekelo kulungisa i-granulometry nezinga lomswakama.

Isethi yezinqubo noma ukwelashwa kwangaphambilini kunezinjongo ezintathu ezibalulekile:

  1. Homogenize okokufaka kwe-biomass kubhayela, ukuze kubhayela kutholakale ukugeleza okungaguquguquki kwamandla enani elifanayo.
  2. Nciphisa i-granulometry yayo ukwandisa indawo yayo ethile.
    Eqinisweni, okuncane ngosayizi wokusanhlamvu, kukhulisa indawo engaphezulu ukuze uphethiloli ne-oxidizer bakwazi ukusabela, ngaleyo ndlela kusheshiswe ukusabela futhi kunciphise inani le-biomass elingasabeli (elingashiswanga)
  3. Nciphisa umswakama ukuthi uqukethe, uvimbela ingxenye yokushisa ekhishwe ngesikhathi somlilo ukuthi isetshenziswe njengokushisa kwe-vaporization yamanzi, kunciphise izinga lokushisa lomusi.

Konke lokhu kumele kwenziwe ngefayela le- ukusetshenziswa kwamandla okungaphansi kakhulu, ngoba wonke amandla asetshenzisiwe kulezi zinqubo, ngaphandle uma kungamandla asalayo noma amandla angasetshenziswa mahhala, kuzosho ukwehla kwamandla aphelele akhiqizwa yilesi sitshalo.

I-biomass boiler

I-boiler impela iyona imishini esemqoka yesitshalo somlilo we-biomass thermoelectric.

Kuwo, kwenziwa inqubo yokuguqula amandla wamakhemikhali aqukethwe ku-biomass abe amandla ashisayo, azoguqulwa kamuva abe ngamandla womshini.

I-boiler, ngaphezu kokuba yimishini ephambili, futhi iyona nto ekhathaza kakhulu ochwepheshe abaphethe ukusebenza kwesitshalo.

Isikimu esinebhayara yomlilo we-biomass

Akungabazeki ukuthi okokusebenza okungadala izinkinga ezingaba khona kakhulu, kubangele isikhathi sokuphumula kakhulu, futhi kudinga ukunakekelwa okuqinile.

Izizathu zokuthi kungani i-boiler iyimishini enenkinga yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • It is a ubuchwepheshe abasafufusa, hhayi ngokwanele athuthukile. Ebhekene nokuhlangenwe nakho okuhle okunqwabelene kwezinye izinqubo zomlilo ezikhipha inani elikhulu lamandla okushisa kusuka ku-oxidation kaphethiloli oqinile, njengezitshalo zamalahle, ukushisa kwe-biomass kubhekene nochungechunge lwezinkinga ezintsha ezingakalungiswa. zixazululwe ngokugculisayo ngokugcwele.
  • Okuqukethwe kwe-potassium ne-chlorine ephezulu ye-biomass kubanga isikali nokugqwala ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zebhayela.
  • Umlilo awuzinzile ngokuphelele, uletha ukuhluka okuphawulekayo kwengcindezi nasekushiseni.
  • Kunobunzima obukhulu ekusebenziseni ngokuphelele ukulawula kwebhayela, ngenxa yokwehluka kwezimo lapho i-biomass ingalethwa khona emnyango.
  • Inzuzo yezitshalo, noma ngabe iphrimiyamu yokukhiqiza ugesi enikezwa ngumthetho waseSpain, icinene kakhulu, iphoqa ukonga kuzo zonke izinto, kufaka phakathi i-boiler. Ngakho-ke, izinto ezihamba phambili noma amasu amahle kakhulu awasetshenziswanga, ngenxa yezindleko ezengeziwe ezibandakanya lokho.

Okukodwa Ukukhethwa okufanele kohlobo lwe-boiler kungaholela empumelelweni ekufezeni iphrojekthi yokukhiqiza ugesi we-biomassNgasikhathi sinye, ukukhetha okungafanelekile kuzokwenza kube nzima kakhulu ukutshalwa kwezimali kulolu hlobo lwesitshalo, olumele phakathi kuka-1 no-3 million euro nge-MW ngayinye yamandla kagesi afakiwe, ukuze kube nenzuzo.

Izitshalo ze-biomass thermoelectric

Isitshalo se-biomass thermoelectric is a isitshalo sokuphehla ugesi lokho kusizakala ngamandla wamakhemikhali aqukethwe inani elithile le-biomass futhi akhishwa njengamandla ashisayo ngenqubo yomlilo.

Okokuqala, isitshalo sokubuyisa amandla we-biomass kumele sibe nohlelo lwe-biomass pretreatment system, izinhloso eziyinhloko ukunciphisa umswakama oqukethe, ukujwayela usayizi nokufana kwe-biomass, ukuze kuqinisekiswe izimo. ukungena kubhayela futhi kufinyelele ekusebenzeni okuphezulu kohlelo lokushisa.

Lapho amandla ashisayo esekhishwe esithandweni esifanele, amagesi akhishwa ngesikhathi somlilo, aqukethe i-CO2 ne-H2O ikakhulu ngokuhlangana nezinye izinto eziqinile futhi ezinegesi, ashintshanisa ukushisa kwawo kubhayela lapho amanzi ajikeleza khona, futhi ngokuvamile aguqulwa umusi ekucindezelekeni nasekushiseni okuthile.

Amagesi omlilo we-biomass adlula kubhayela, anikezela amandla awo emanzini / ku-steam ngezigaba ezihlukene: izindonga zamanzi, i-superheater, i-vaporizer beam, i-economizer ne-preheater yomoya.

I-steam ngaphansi kwengcindezi eyakhiwe kubhayela ibese iyiswa kuturbine, lapho ikhula khona, ikhiqize uguquko olusha lwamandla lapho amandla akhona aqukethwe kusisi ngaphansi kwengcindezi aguqulwa okokuqala kumandla we-kinetic, bese kuba kumandla wokujikeleza ojikelezayo.

Uhlaka lwezomthetho lwezitshalo ze-biomass thermoelectric eSpain

Ukukhiqizwa kukagesi eSpain kufana nalokhu abatshalizimali abazimele, yize kungumsebenzi olawulwa ngokuqinile nguhulumeni.

Imithetho nezinqumo ezahlukahlukene zilawula lo msebenzi, futhi kubalulekile kunoma yimuphi uchwepheshe osebenza kwizikhungo zamandla ka-biomass ukuthi azi lolu hlaka lwezomthetho.

Imisebenzi ehlukene ehlobene namandla kagesi ingaphansi kokungenelela kombuso othile, uma kubhekwa ukubaluleka kwale misebenzi.

Ngokwesiko, isimo soMsebenzi Kahulumeni sisetshenzisiwe, uMbuso ubhekele ukukhiqizwa, ukuthuthwa, ukusatshalaliswa kanye nokuthengiswa kwamandla kagesi.

Namuhla akuseyona i-Public Service, ngoba le misebenzi ikhululeke ngokuphelele.

Ukungenelela komphakathi okwamanje kuyagcinwa njengoba kuyimisebenzi engaphansi komthethonqubo oqinile. Kuzoba mnandi ukutadisha kwasekuqaleni ukuthi imikhuba ehlukene engathinta kanjani imisebenzi ehlobene nokwenziwa, ukuthuthwa nokuthengiswa kwamandla kagesi.

I-Biomass yokusetshenziswa kwasekhaya

Yize ngigxile kakhulu ekutholeni amandla kagesi, ukusetshenziswa kwe-biomass ukukhiqiza ukushisa okusetshenziselwa ukufudumeza nakho kushiwo futhi kungcono, ezingeni lasekhaya elinama-boilers nezitofu ezinikezelwe kuphela kulo.

ishidi lokukhiqiza i-pellet

Uma ufuna imininingwane engaphezulu ungafunda i-athikili ngozakwethu uGermán Konke odinga ukukwazi ngezitofu zepelethi

Ngale ndlela, ngeke kube namuntu ozokuvimba odabeni lwe-biomass futhi kwazi bani, mhlawumbe ungalokotha ufake esinye salezi zitofu ekhaya lakho.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.