Umlando we-Max Planck

UMax planck

Njengoba isayensi ithuthukile, umhlaba uguquke kakhulu. Ukwenziwa ngcono kolwazi ku-quantum physics, chemistry, biology nezinye izifundo kuvumele umuntu ukuthi aphile impilo ehluke ngokuphelele kuleyo abebe nayo emakhulwini ambalwa eminyaka edlule. Namuhla sizokhuluma ngososayensi omake ngaphambi nangemva futhi owaqala ukuba khona kwe-quantum theory. Ingabe mayelana UMax Planck.

Lo sosayensi waklonyeliswa ngeNobel Prize futhi uthathwa njengomsunguli omkhulu womcabango ozoholela ekuthuthukisweni kwesayensi emhlabeni wonke. Ngabe ufuna ukwazi ukuxhashazwa nomlando kaMax Planck? Qhubeka ufunde ngoba kuyathakazelisa ngempela futhi kunelukuluku lokwazi.

Wayengubani uMax Planck?

UMax Planck njengoMdala

Igama lakhe eligcwele nguMax Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. Ungusosayensi waseJalimane owazalwa ngo-Ephreli 23, 1858 eKiel. Wayengumcwaningi omkhulu owafunda emanyuvesi aseMunich naseBerlin lapho enza khona yonke imihlahlandlela yokunikeza i-physics yanamuhla. Ngo-1885 waqokwa njengoprofesa we-physics e-University of Kiel kwathi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngo-1889 waya eNyuvesi yaseBerlin lapho ayesebenza khona njengoprofesa kwaze kwaba ngu-1928.

Ngesikhathi enza ucwaningo, wayehlaziya izici zamandla nokuthi zisebenza kanjani. Ukukhishwa kokukhanya, imiphumela ebonakalayo, ukusebenza kokugeleza kwamandla kuzinto ezahlukahlukene, njll. Ngo-1900 wakwazi ukusungula ukuhamba kwamandla. Futhi ukuthi amandla akhanya ngokwehlukana, akukhona ukugeleza okuqhubekayo. Ingxenye ngayinye yamandla yaziwa njenge Mangaki. Kusuka kuleli gama lapho kuthiwa i-quantum theory.

Lo mbono we-quantum waqala ukuphumelela emphakathini wesayensi nokuvumela incazelo yezimo eziningi ezazingaziwa kuze kube yileso sikhathi. Kungaleso sikhathi-ke lapho, eqhubeka nophenyo lwakhe, akwazi ukuthola ukuhlangana kwendalo yonke. Kusuka lapho siyazi njengokuhlala njalo kukaPlanck. Ngenxa yalokhu okutholakele, namuhla kungenzeka ukwazi okuningi ngokusebenza kwamandla kanye nezinkulungwane zezibalo ezilungiselelwe, ngoba lesi sici siyinto engaguquguquki.

Umbono we-Quantum

Umbono we-Quantum

Umbono kaPlanck we-quantum uthi amandla anayo i-quantum ngayinye alingana nobuningi bemisebe ephindaphindwe njalo njalo. Lokho wukuthi, kusikhombisa izici ezinamandla ze-quantum ngayinye noma ingxenye ngayinye yokugeleza kwamandla. Lokhu kuyasiza kakhulu ukwazi ukusebenza kokugeleza kwamandla kwezinto zokusebenza kanye nezilinganiso zamandla emvelweni.

Ukutholwa kwakhe akuzange kuchithe umbono wangaphambili wokuthi imisebe ihamba ngamagagasi. Ngemuva kokucwaninga okuningi okwalandela, ososayensi manje bacabanga ukuthi imisebe kagesi ihamba ngokuhlanganisa izakhiwo zamagagasi nalezo zezinhlayiya.

Njengenjwayelo lapho kutholakala okusha okuphula yonke into esunguliwe (bona Umbono we-Continental Drift) ekuqaleni wenqatshwa umphakathi wesayensi. Izimpikiswano ezivumayo nezingenakuphikwa kanye nobufakazi kuyadingeka ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ukhuluma ngani. Ngakho-ke, ukutholwa okwenziwe uPlanck kamuva zaqinisekiswa yizifundo zabanye ososayensi. Ngenxa yalokhu okutholakele, i-physics yaqala ukusebenza emkhakheni ohluke ngokuphelele futhi othuthuke ngokwengeziwe. Lo mkhakha we-physics waziwa njenge-quantum mechanics futhi yiwo osekela lonke ulwazi oludingekayo lokufunda amandla e-athomu. Uma yonke into emhlabeni wethu yakhiwe ngama-athomu nama-molecule, ukwazi amandla awo nokuthi asebenza kanjani kubaluleke kakhulu.

e 1905 wakuqaphela ukubaluleka kwemibono ka-Albert Einstein ngemisebe kagesi. Bobabili basebenzisana kuyo yonke imisebenzi yabo njengososayensi abasebenza ukuguqula lowo mhlaba.

UMax Planck no-Albert Einstein

Umhlangano wososayensi

Njengoba uPlanck engakwazanga ukuqhubekela phambili kude kakhulu ekutholeni kwakhe, kwaba yisisekelo sabanye ososayensi abanjengo-Einstein ukuthuthukisa imibono eminingi. Ngo-1905, U-Einstein ushicilele umbono owaziwa ngokuthi umphumela we-photoelectric ngezibalo nophenyo lukaPlanck. Ukwazile ukukhombisa ukuthi izinhlayiya ezisebenza ngogesi ziyakwazi ukuncela nokukhipha amandla ngamagama alinganayo njengokuvama kokukhanya noma kwemisebe.

Le migomo ye-quantum yayiya ngokuya ifaneleka kakhulu emhlabeni we-physics kuze kuthi, ngo-1930, kube yizisekelo ezijwayelekile ze-physics entsha. Ngokutholwa okwenziwe uPlanck futhi kwaguqula umhlaba we-physics, wazuza imiklomelo eminingi, kufaka phakathi neNobel Prize in Physics. Waphumelela ngo-1918. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngo-1930, lapho eqeda umsebenzi wakhe e-University of Berlin, wakhethwa njengomongameli we-Kaiser William Society for the Advancement of Science. Kamuva yayibizwa ngeMax Planck Society.

Ngaleso sikhathi kwaqala iMpi Yezwe II kwathi uPlanck waxabana noHitler ngenxa yokuphikisana kwakhe nombuso wamaNazi. Izikhathi eziningana kwakumele akhulumele ozakwabo abangamaJuda ukuze babasize. Kwakudingeka ashiye inhlangano ngo-1933 ukuze abe ngumongameli lapho kuphela iMpi Yezwe II.

Ukuhlupheka nentuthuko

Ukuhlupheka kukaMax Planck

Akuyona yonke into uMax Planck ayenayo empilweni yakhe yayiyinhle. Kwakudingeka ahlupheke futhi abhekane nezinhlekelele eziningi. Okokuqala ukuthi, ngo-1909 eneminyaka engama-50, wahlupheka ukushona komkakhe ngemuva kweminyaka engama-22 beshadile. Ushiye ngemuva amadodana amabili namadodakazi amabili angamawele. Abadala bashona empini eyenzeka ngesikhathi seMpi Yomhlaba Yokuqala ngo-1916. Amadodakazi amabili ashonela ekubelethweni kwathi indlu yawo yabhidlizwa ngo-1944 ngamabhomu.

Ngaphandle kwakho konke lokhu, njengokungathi lokho kwakunganele, indodana encane kunazo zonke yathinteka ecaleni elibhekene nempilo kaHitler futhi yafa ngendlela enyantisayo ngo-1945. Kwakudingeka isinde kuwo wonke umndeni wayo kuze kube, nenkosikazi yayo yesibili nendodakazi kusuka kulokhu, bathuthela eGöttingen, lapho ashonela khona ngo-Okthoba 4, 1947 eneminyaka engama-90.

Ngiyethemba uyithandile le biography kaMax Planck.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.