I-Arcturus

i-arturus

Ebusuku basentwasahlobo nasekuqaleni kwehlobo, noma yimuphi umuntu obukele endaweni esenyakatho ye-Earth uzobona inkanyezi ekhanyayo esibhakabhakeni, phezulu: okusawolintshi okuvelele, okuvamise ukuphambaniswa ne-Mars. Ingabe I-Arcturus, inkanyezi ekhanya kakhulu kumlaza we-Bootes. Kwaziwa njengenkanyezi ekhanya kakhulu kuyo yonke inyakatho yasezulwini.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele konke odinga ukukwazi nge-Arcturus, izici zayo kanye nelukuluku.

I-Arcturus, inkanyezi ekhanya kakhulu kuyo yonke inyakatho yesibhakabhaka

inkanyezi ye-arcturus

Balinganisela ukuthi i-Arcturus iyinkanyezi enkulu exwayisa ngalokho okuzokwenzeka elangeni eminyakeni engaba yizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezinhlanu. Ubukhulu obukhulu be-Arcturus buwumphumela wokuzungeza kwangaphakathi kwenkanyezi, okuwumphumela wokuguga kwayo. U-5% wezinkanyezi esizibona esibhakabhakeni udinga kuphela ukukhathazeka ngokwenza into eyodwa: guqula i-hydrogen ibe yi-helium. Uma izinkanyezi zenza lokhu, izazi zezinkanyezi zithi "zisendaweni yokulandelana eyinhloko." Ilanga liyakwenza lokho. Nakuba izinga lokushisa ebusweni belanga ingaphansi kuka-6.000 degrees Celsius (noma i-5.770 Kelvin uma inembile), izinga lokushisa layo eliyisisekelo lifinyelela kuma-degree ayizigidi ezingu-40, okubangelwa ukusabela kwe-nuclear fusion. I-nucleus ikhula kancane kancane, iqongelela i-helium kuyo.

Uma silinda iminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-5, indawo engaphakathi yelanga, indawo eshisa kakhulu, izokhula ibe nkulu ngokwanele ukuze inwebe ungqimba olungaphandle njengebhaluni lomoya oshisayo. Umoya oshisayo noma igesi izothatha umthamo omkhulu futhi ilanga lizophenduka inkanyezi enkulu ebomvu. Uma ucabangela ubukhulu bayo, i-Arcturus ithatha umthamo omkhulu. Ukuminyana kwayo kungaphansi kuka-0,0005 ukuminyana kwelanga.

Ukushintsha kombala wenkanyezi ekhulayo kungenxa yokuthi i-nucleus manje iphoqeleka ukuthi ishise indawo enkulu, efana nenkanyezi enomsila ezama ukushisa izikhathi eziyikhulu ngesishisi esifanayo. Ngakho-ke, izinga lokushisa elingaphezulu liyehla futhi izinkanyezi ziba bomvu. Ukukhanya okubomvu kuhambisana nokwehla kwezinga lokushisa elingaphezulu cishe kuka-4000 Kelvin noma ngaphansi. Uma unembe, izinga lokushisa elingaphezulu kwe-Arcturus lingu-4.290 degrees Kelvin. I-spectrum ye-Arcturus yehlukile kuneLanga, kodwa ifana kakhulu ne-spectrum ye-sunspot. Ama-Sunspots ayizifunda "ezibandayo" zeLanga, ngakho-ke lokhu kuqinisekisa ukuthi i-Arcturus iyinkanyezi epholile.

Izici ze-Arcturus

izinkanyezi

Lapho inkanyezi ikhula ngokushesha okukhulu, ukucindezela kokucindezela umnyombo kuzonikeza kancane, bese isikhungo senkanyezi sizovala okwesikhashana. Kodwa-ke, ukukhanya okuvela e-Arcturus kwakugqamile kunalokho obekulindelwe. Abanye abantu babheja lokhu kusho ukuthi i-nucleus manje "isivuselelwe kabusha" ngokuhlanganisa i-helium ibe yikhabhoni. Hhayi-ke, ngalesi sibonelo, sesivele sazi ukuthi kungani i-Arcturus iqunjelwe kangaka: ukushisa kuyivuthela ngokweqile. I-Arcturus icishe iphindwe izikhathi ezingama-30 kunelanga futhi, okuxakayo, ubukhulu bayo bucishe bufane ne-Astro Rey. Abanye balinganisela ukuthi izinga labo lenyuke ngo-50%.

Ngokombono, inkanyezi ekhiqiza i-carbon evela ku-helium ekuphenduleni kwe-nuclear fusion ngeke ibonise umsebenzi kazibuthe njengelanga, kodwa i-Arcturus izokhipha ama-X-ray athambile, okubonisa ukuthi inomqhele ocashile oqhutshwa uzibuthe.

Inkanyezi engaziwa

inkanyezi nenkanyezi enomsila

I-Arcturus ingeye-halo ye-Milky Way. Izinkanyezi eziku-halo azinyakazi endizeni ye-Milky Way njengelanga, kodwa imigudu yazo isendizeni ethambekele kakhulu enezinxushunxushu. Lokhu kungase kuchaze ukunyakaza kwayo ngokushesha esibhakabhakeni. Ilanga lilandela ukujikeleza kwe-Milky Way, kanti i-Arcturus ayilandeli. Othile waveza ukuthi i-Arcturus ingase ivele komunye umthala futhi ingqubuzane ne-Milky Way eminyakeni engaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-5 edlule. Okungenani ezinye izinkanyezi ezingu-52 zibonakala zisemigudwini efana ne-Arcturus. Baziwa ngokuthi "iqembu le-Arcturus."

Nsuku zonke, i-Arcturus isondela kusistimu yethu sonozungezilanga, kodwa ayisasondeli. Njengamanje isondela kumakhilomitha angu-5 ngomzuzwana. Ingxenye yesigidi eminyakeni edlule, kwakuyinkanyezi yesithupha yobukhulu eyayicishe ingabonakali, manje ibheke kuVirgo ngesivinini esingamakhilomitha angaphezu kuka-120 ngomzuzwana.

I-Bootes, i-El Boyero, iwumlaza osenyakatho otholakala kalula, oqondiswa inkanyezi ekhanya kakhulu kumlaza i-Ursa Major. Iningi labantu liyakwazi ukubona umumo we-skillet odwetshwe phakathi komgogodla nomsila we-Big Dipper. Isibambo saleli pan sikhomba ngase-Arcturus. Yinkanyezi ekhanya kakhulu kuleya ndawo. Abanye abathanda "inkathi entsha" bakholelwa ukuthi kukhona ama-Arcturian, uhlanga lwama-alien oluthuthuke kakhulu kwezobuchwepheshe. Nokho, ukube bekunesimiso seplanethi ezungeza le nkanyezi, ngabe kade yatholakala.

Umlando othile

I-Arcturus ishisa umhlaba njengelangabi lekhandlela ebangeni elingamakhilomitha ayi-8. Kodwa masingakhohlwa ukuthi sekucishe kube ngama-light years angama-40 ukusuka kithi. Uma sishintsha ilanga nge-Arcturus, amehlo ethu azolibona ngokugqama izikhathi ezingu-113 futhi isikhumba sethu sizoshisa ngokushesha. Uma kwenziwa ngemisebe ye-infrared sibona ukuthi ikhanya izikhathi ezingama-215 kunelanga. Uma kuqhathaniswa ukukhanya kwayo okuphelele nokukhanya kwayo okubonakalayo (ubukhulu), kulinganiselwa ukuthi iyiminyaka engama-37 yokukhanya ukusuka eMhlabeni. Uma izinga lokushisa elingaphezulu lihlobene nenani lemisebe yomhlaba wonke elikhiqizayo, kulinganiselwa ukuthi ububanzi kufanele bube amakhilomitha ayizigidi ezingu-36, okuphindwe izikhathi ezingu-26 kuneLanga.

I-Arcturus iyinkanyezi yokuqala ukutholakala emini ngosizo lwesibonakude. Isazi sezinkanyezi esiphumelele kwakunguJean-Baptiste Morin, owasebenzisa i-telescope encane e-refracting ngo-1635. Singaphinda ukuhlola ngokucophelela, sigweme ngazo zonke izindleko ukukhomba isibonakude eduze nelanga. Idethi eshiwo yokuzama lo msebenzi ungo-Okthoba.

Uma kukhulunywa ngezinkanyezi ezingemuva, ukunyakaza kwe-Arcturus kuyaphawuleka - i-arc engamayintshi angu-2,29 ngonyaka. Phakathi kwezinkanyezi ezikhanya kakhulu u-Alpha Centauri kuphela ohamba ngokushesha. Owokuqala owabona ukunyakaza kwe-Arcturus kwakungu-Edmond Halley ngo-1718. Kunezinto ezimbili ezenza inkanyezi ibonise ukuzinyakazisa okubalulekile: isivinini sayo sangempela esihlobene nendawo eyizungezile kanye nokuba seduze kwayo nesimiso sethu sonozungezilanga. I-Arcturus ihlangabezana nazo zombili lezi zimo.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-Arcturus nezici zayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.