Homo habilis

homo habilis

Umuntu, njengezinye izinhlobo, ubuye waba nezinye izinhlobo zamadlozi. Enye yazo yi- Homo habilis. Kubhekwa njengokhokho omdala kunabo bonke bohlobo lwethu futhi kwatholakala ngenxa yemivubukulo yokuqala. Ukuvela kweHomos habilis kwenzeka cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezi-2.4 edlule. Yahlala emhlabeni cishe iminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezingama-800 futhi yaqondana nabanye okhokho abanjengoHomo erectus noHomo rudolfensis.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, imvelaphi, indima yokuziphendukela kwemvelo kanye nokufuna ukwazi kweHomo habilis.

Izici eziyinhloko

ubuso bukahomo habilis

Izinsalela zokuqala ezitholakele zale nhlobo yokhokho bomuntu zenzekile e-Afrika. Ngenxa yekhono elenzelwe lesi sibonelo ukukwazi ukukhohlisa izinto yingakho lathola leli gama. Yethula ukuhlakanipha okuphakeme kunabanye okhokho abaziwa ngokuthi i-Australopithecus. Ukuthuthuka okuningi kwalolu hlobo kungenxa yokuthi yaqala ukufaka inyama ekudleni kwayo. Iningi lama-micronutrients enyameni lisize ukukhiqiza amakhono amasha okuqonda. Abesilisa bebakhulu kakhulu kunabesifazane futhi bipipal.

Yize yayiyi-bipedal, yayisagcina i-morphology ethile ehlukile kumuntu wamanje. Izingalo zakhe zazizinde kakhulu futhi zasebenza njengokweseka ukunyakaza okuthile okungazelelwe. Babenomumo ofana nezinkawu ezinkulu zanamuhla. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, babeseneminwe ebasiza ukukhuphuka ezihlahleni kalula. Ngaphandle kokucabanga kwakho, vBabehlala ngamaqembu futhi benesakhiwo esihlelekile.

Umsuka weHomo habilis

ukuthuthuka komuntu

Igama likaHomo habilis livela eqinisweni lokuthi izinsalela zezitsha ezenziwe ngamatshe ezazenziwe ngabantu balolu hlobo zitholakale. Ivele cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezi-2.6 edlule futhi yaphila kwaze kwaba cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-1.6 edlule. Lezi zinhlobo bezilokhu ziphila kusukela ePleistocene ngezikhathi zeGelasian nezaseCalabrian. Lesi sikhathi sangaphambi komlando lapho kwakhula khona ukuthi le ngxenye yomuntu ibiphawuleka ngokwehla kwemvula. Isomiso besinjalo ukuthi kube nezinkinga ezanele zokuthuthukiswa kwezitshalo nezilwane.

Ngokungafani nalokho okwenzeka ngeHomo erectus, lolu hlobo aluzange lushiye izwekazi. Zonke izinsalela ezitholakele zenzekile e-Afrika. Lokhu kwenza yonke indawo yaseTanzania ibhekwe njengobuntu besintu. Ngo-1964 kwatholwa uchungechunge lwezinto ezazingenzeka kwahlaziywa izinsalela zamathambo nezinye izinto. Kulapha lapho babona khona ukutholwa. Lezi zinhlobo zabhalwa njengeHomo habilis futhi yathathwa njengezinhlobo ezintsha ngaphakathi kohlobo lomuntu.

Ekusatshalalisweni kwayo ngokwezwe sithola izwekazi lase-Afrika, yize kukhona imisinga ethile yesayensi ephakamisa eminye imibono. Futhi ukuthi i-hominid yavela ezindaweni zase-Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania naseMpumalanga Afrika. Yize kunokutholwa okuhlukahlukene ku-paleontology, abukho ubufakazi bokuthi lolu hlobo lwake lwafudukela kwamanye amazwekazi.

Indima kaHomo habilis ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo

erectus

Lolu hlobo lwesintu lube nokusebenzelana okuhle nokuziphendukela kwemvelo. Kuze kube yileso sikhathi bekucatshangwa ukuthi ulayini wokuziphendukela kwemvelo oholela kumuntu ubulula kakhulu. Kwakucatshangwa ukuthi kuvela e-Australopithecus, kudlula ku-Homo erectus bese kuba yi-Neanderthals. Yilapho iHomo sapiens isivele ibukeka. Okungaziwa kuze kube yileso sikhathi ukuthi ngabe bekukhona olunye uhlobo oluphakathi phakathi kwalaba bantu. Imivubukulo etholakala kuphela kaHomo erectus yayitholakele ezwenikazi lase-Asia futhi akukho lutho olwaluhlobene ne-Afrika.

Ngenxa yokutholwa okwenziwe eTanzania, izikhala eziningi ezazikhona olwazini lokuziphendukela kwabantu zingavaleka. Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi izinsalela ezitholakele zifana nohlobo olusha lohlobo lweHomo. Futhi ukuthi lezi zinsalela zihlangabezane nazo zonke izidingo ezidingekayo ukuze zibe kulolu hlobo. Phakathi kwalezi zidingo sithola ukuma mpo, i-bipedal namakhono ukuze sikwazi ukuphatha amathuluzi athile. Wonke lawa makghono aholela esiphethweni sokuthi kwakungelohlobo olusha lohlobo lweHomo. Okwakukude kakhulu kunezinye izinhlobo zakamuva kwakuyikhono layo le-cranial, elalilincane kakhulu ngaleso sikhathi.

Umehluko owawukhona nge-Australopithecus wawumbalwa. Lokhu kwenza uHomo habilis abe yisandulela esidala kunazo zonke zomuntu wanamuhla. Kuze kube muva nje, kwakucatshangwa ukuthi iHomo habilis ne-erectus zivela komunye nomunye. Kodwa-ke, okunye okutholakele kwesimanje okwenziwe ngo-2007 ukwazile ukubeka ukungabaza ngalokhu. Lezi zingcweti zithi uHomo habilis wakwazi ukuphila isikhathi eside kunaleso esasicatshangwa ngaphambili. Futhi uma senza izibalo, leli qiniso lingenza phakathi neminyaka engaba ngu-500.000 yomlando zombili lezi zinhlobo zazingaphila ndawonye.

Ngaphandle kokungabaza, lokhu kutholakala okukhulu ososayensi. Ukungabaza kudalwa mayelana nokuhlangana okukhona phakathi kwalezi zinhlobo zombili lapho ukungabaza ukuthi i-erectus ivikele i-habilis kusagcinwa nanamuhla. Ukuhlalisana kwabo akuphikiswa, yize kuvame ukukhonjiswa ukuthi kwakukhona uhlobo lomzabalazo ngaphandle kwegazi wezinsizakusebenza. Umphumela womzabalazo wezinsizakusebenza kwaba nguHomo erectus njengophumelele. Ngalesi sizathu, uHomo habilis wayenyamalala.

Umzimba

Siyazi ukuthi phakathi kwezici zokuqhathanisa iHomo habilis ne-Australopithecus, sibona ukwehla kwamakhasimende ayo amaningi. Izinyawo ziyefana nalezi zamanje futhi bezinokuhamba cishe ngokuphelele engikuphile. Ngokuqondene nogebhezi, umumo wawuyindilinga ukwedlula owangaphambili. Ubuso bayo babuphawulelwe ukubikezela okuphansi kune-Australopithecus.

Uma simqhathanisa nomuntu wamanje, siyabona ukuthi wayengekho ngobukhulu obukhulu ngokukhethekile. Amadoda angalinganisa amamitha ayi-1.4 kanye nesisindo esingamasentimitha angama-52. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, abesifazane babebancane kakhulu. Bafike kumitha elilodwa ukuphakama nesisindo sama-34 kilos ngokwesilinganiso. Lokhu kukhombise ukungafani kahle kwezocansi.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeHomo habilis nendima yalo ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo.

 


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.