I-Eratosthenes

I-Eratosthenes

Kuwo wonke umlando kube nabantu abambalwa abanolwazi oluthuthuke kakhulu kwiplanethi yethu. Enye yala madoda yayikhona I-Eratosthenes. Wazalelwa eCyrene ngonyaka we-276 BC. Kwakukwazi ukubala usayizi woMhlaba sibonga ezifundweni zakhe ze-astronomy namandla akhe amakhulu okususa. Ngaphandle kobuchwepheshe obuncane kakhulu ngaleso sikhathi, abantu abanjengo-Eratosthenes bathatha izinyathelo ezinkulu ekuqondeni iplanethi yethu.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela i-biography nokuxhashazwa kuka-Eratosthenes.

Izimiso zayo

Umkhakha wezikhali wase-Eratosthenes

Kumele sikhumbule ukuthi ngalesi sikhathi kwakungekho nobuchwepheshe bokubheka, ngakho-ke izinkanyezi zazingakaqali. Ngakho-ke, ukuqashelwa u-Eratosthenes kuphakeme impela. Ekuqaleni, wafunda e-Alexandria nase-Athens. Waba abafundi baka-Ariston waseChios, uCallimachus noLysanias waseCyrene. Wayengumngane omkhulu futhi we-Archimedes owaziwayo.

Yaqanjwa ngokuthi iBeta nePentatlos. La magama esiteketiso asho ukubhekiswa ohlotsheni lomsubathi okwazi ukuba yingxenye yamakhono athile futhi okuthi, ngenxa yalokhu, angakwazi ukugqama kunoma yimuphi wabo futhi uhlale elesibili. Lokhu kwenza kube isiteketiso esinzima kuye. Ngaphandle kwalelo gama lesidlaliso, wakwazi ukusebenzisa izisekelo zalo ekutholeni okuthokozisayo kamuva kwesayensi.

Wasebenza cishe konke ukuphila kwakhe emtatsheni wezincwadi wase-Alexandria. Ngokusho kwabanye abantu, walahlekelwa ukubona eneminyaka engu-80 futhi wazivumela ukuba alambe. Ungumqambi we-armillary sphere, ithuluzi lokubuka ngezinkanyezi elalisasetshenziswa ngekhulu leshumi nesikhombisa. Lokhu kungaveza ukuthi wawunekhono kangakanani ngesikhathi uphila. Kwakungenxa yomkhakha wezikhali lapho akwazi khona ukwazi ukubambeka kwe-ecliptic.

Wakwazi ukubala isikhawu phakathi kwezindawo ezishisayo futhi lezi zibalo kamuva zasetshenziswa uPtolemy kwezinye zezifundo zakhe njenge umbono we-geocentric. Wayebheka nokusitheka kwelanga futhi wakwazi ukubala ukuthi ibanga elisuka eMhlabeni liye eLangeni lalingamamayela angama-804.000.000. Uma inkundla yayingamamitha ayi-185, lokhu kwanikeza amakhilomitha ayi-148.752.000, isibalo esiseduze kakhulu neyunithi yezinkanyezi.

Ucwaningo lokubuka

Amabanga asuka e-Eratosthenes

Phakathi kophenyo lwakhe, uchithe isikhathi eside ebheka futhi enikeza izibalo zamabanga. Olunye ucezu lolwazi akwazi ukulunikeza ukuthi ibanga elisuka eMhlabeni liye eNyangeni lalingamastadiyu angama-780.000. Lokhu okwamanje kwaziwa njengokuphindwe cishe kathathu ukuphakama. Kodwa-ke, uma kubhekwa ubuchwepheshe obabukhona ngaleso sikhathi, akunakushiwo ukuthi kwakuyintuthuko yesayensi.

Ngenxa yokubona akwenzile nge-armillary sphere, wakwazi ukubala ububanzi beLanga. Uthe kwakuyizikhathi ezingama-27 kunalezo zoMhlaba, yize namuhla kuyaziwa ukuthi iphindwe izikhathi ezingama-109.

Phakathi neminyaka yakhe yokufunda, wayefunda izinombolo eziphambili. Ukuze abale usayizi woMhlaba, bekufanele asungule imodeli ye-trigonometry lapho asebenzise khona imicabango yobubanzi nobude. Lezi zivivinyo nezibalo zazikade zisetshenziswe ngaphambili, hhayi nje ngendlela esondele kangako.

Njengoba esebenza emtatsheni wezincwadi, wakwazi ukufunda i-papyrus ethi uJuni 21 kwakungu- I-Summer Solstice. Lokhu bekusho ukuthi emini iLanga lizobe seliseduze ne-zenith kunanoma yiluphi olunye usuku lonyaka. Lokhu kungakhonjiswa kalula ngokushayela induku mpo emhlabathini bese ubona ukuthi ayiphosi isithunzi. Vele, lokhu kwenzeka kuphela eSyene, Egypt (okuyilapho i-equator yomhlaba itholakala nalapho imisebe yelanga ifika ibheke ngokuphelele ngosuku lwe-solstice yasehlobo).

Uma lokhu kuhlolwa kwesithunzi kwenziwa e-Alexandria (etholakala ku-800 km enyakatho yeSyene) wawubona ukuthi induku yakha kanjani isithunzi esifushane kakhulu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kulelo dolobha, ilanga lasemini lalicishe libe ngama-7 degrees eningizimu ye-zenith.

Ukubalwa kwamabanga ukusuka e-Eratosthenes

Izibalo nokutholwa kwe-Eratosthenes

Ibanga phakathi kwala madolobha womabili lalithathwa kubahambi ababethengisa phakathi kwalawo madolobha. Kungenzeka ukuthi abe nale datha kusuka ezinkulungwaneni zama-papyri emtatsheni wezincwadi wase-Alexandria. Kunamahlebezi athile athi bekumele asebenzise ibutho lamasosha ukubala izinyathelo abazithathile phakathi kwamadolobha womabili nokuthi yile ndlela abale amabanga ngayo.

Uma sibona ukuthi u-Eratosthenes usebenzise inkundla yezemidlalo yase-Egypt, engaba ngu-52,4 cm, lokhu kungenza ububanzi bomhlaba bube ngamakhilomitha angama-39.614,4. Lokhu kwenza kube lula ukuyibala ngephutha elingaphansi kuka-1%. Lezi zibalo kamuva zashintshwa nguPosidonius eminyakeni engu-150 kamuva. Lesi sibalo siphume kancane futhi yiso esisetshenziswe nguPtolemy nalapho uChristopher Columbus ethembele khona ukuze akwazi ukukhombisa ukuba lusizo nokuba yiqiniso kohambo lwakhe.

Okunye okutholwe ngu-Eratosthenes kwaba ukubala ibanga ukusuka eMhlabeni kuye eLangeni nokusuka eMhlabeni kuye eNyangeni. UPtolemy nguyena othi u-Eratosthenes angalinganisa ukuthambekela kwe-eksisi yoMhlaba ngokunembile. Ukwazile ukuqoqa imininingwane ethembekile neqondile ka-23º51'15 ”.

Eminye iminikelo

E-Alexandria

Yonke imiphumela ayeyithola ezifundweni zakhe wayeyishiya encwadini yakhe ebizwa nge "On the measurements of the Earth". Njengamanje le ncwadi ilahlekile. Abanye ababhali abanjengo UCleomedes, Theon waseSmirna noStrabo bakhombise ngemisebenzi yabo imininingwane yalezi zibalo. Kungenxa yalaba babhali ngeqiniso lokuthi singaba nemininingwane edingekayo mayelana ne-Eratosthenes nedatha yayo.

Ngakho konke esikubonile, akunakuphikiswa ngeqhaza elikhulu elenziwa ngu-Eratosthenes kwisayensi. Ngaphezu kwalokhu, wenza neminye imisebenzi eminingi kubandakanya ukwakheka kwe- ikhalenda leap kanye nekhathalogi enezinkanyezi ezingama-675 nesibongo sazo. Wabuye wakwazi ukudweba umzila osuka eNayile uye eKhartoum ngokunembe kakhulu kufaka neminye imifela. Ngamafuphi, ibingasifanele nhlobo isidlaliso se-Beta ebinaso nangaphansi kwencazelo yaso.

Ngiyethemba lolu lwazi luzokusiza ukwazi okuningi nge-Eratosthenes.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.