Uyini umcimbi we-El Niño?

Isithombe soLwandlekazi iPacific

i-Pacific Ocean

Kwiplanethi lapho ama-75% obuso bayo embozwe ngamanzi, izilwandle zidlala indima ebaluleke kakhulu ekulawuleni isimo sezulu somhlaba wonke, kusukela ezigxotsheni kuya ezindaweni ezishisayo. Futhi kulapho, emanzini ashisayo asempumalanga yePacific, lapho kwenzeka khona isimo sezulu esiqala ngokwenziwa sibe sendawo, kepha esigcina sibe nemiphumela kuwo wonke umhlaba: I-El Niño.

Kulesi sihloko sizochaza ukuthi iyini nokuthi isithinta kanjani isimo sezulu somhlaba jikelele ngakho-ke ungafunda kabanzi ngezilwandle kanye nomthelela ezinazo kuzo zonke izingxenye zomhlaba wethu.

Uyini umcimbi we-El Niño?

Amazinga okushisa olwandle lwasePacific

I-El Niño Kuyinto ehlobene nokufudumala kwamanzi asempumalanga yenkabazwe yePacific, eyindilinga, eyenzeka njalo eminyakeni emithathu noma eyisishiyagalombili futhi ihlala izinyanga eziyi-8-10. Kuyisigaba esifudumele sephethini yesimo sezulu esiseNkabazwe ebizwa nge-El Niño-Southern Oscillation, i-ENSO ngesifinyezo sayo esiNgisini. Kuyisimo esidala umonakalo ongabaleki futhi omubi kakhulu ezindaweni ezihlangana nezindawo ezishisayo nezisenkabazwe, ikakhulu ngenxa yemvula enamandla.

Abadobi basePeru babelibiza lelo gama libhekisela enganeni enguJesu, futhi unyaka nonyaka kuvela umsinga ofudumele kaKhisimusi. Kuze kwaba ngo-1960 lapho kwaqashelwa khona ukuthi kwakungeyona into yasendaweni yasePeruvia, kodwa ukuthi ngempela kunemiphumela kuyo yonke iPacific eshisayo ngisho nasendaweni engaphezulu.

Akukacaci ukuthi lesi simo siqala kanjani, kepha isazi sezulu iMbali uJacob Bjerknes (1897-1975) wahlobanisa amazinga okushisa aphakeme olwandle nolwandle olubuthaka oluvela empumalanga kanye nemvula enamandla eyayihambisana nabo.

Kamuva, esinye isazi sesimo sezulu okuthiwa u-Abraham Levy sakuphawula lokho amanzi olwandle, abanda ngesikhathi sekwindla nasebusika, ayashisa futhi ngenxa yalokho, izinga lokushisa lomoya liyakhula. Imisinga yamanzi afudumele ihamba ngaphansi kolwandle, isuka e-Australia iye ePeru.

Kutholakala kanjani lo mkhuba?

Njengoba inemiphumela engalimaza, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba nezinhlelo zokuyithola ngesikhathi. Ngakho-ke, kungathathwa izinyathelo ezifanele ukugwema inani elikhulu kakhulu lokufa kwabantu. Okwakho, iziphuphutheki, ama-buoy entantayo kuyasetshenziswa futhi nolwandle luyahlaziywa ukwazi ukuthi ubuso bezilwandle ezisenkabazwe buveza ziphi izimo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, umoya uyaphenywa ngoba, njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ushintsho emoyeni lungaba inkomba yokuthi isimo se-El Niño sesizokwenzeka.

Linayiphi ithonya esimweni sezulu?

Isikhukhula, omunye wemiphumela ye-El Niño

U-El Niño, into ebiqhubeka iminyaka eyizinkulungwane, unethonya elikhulu esimweni sezulu emhlabeni. Empeleni, namuhla kungashintsha izimo zezulu zendawo kangangokuba, ngenxa yokwanda kwesibalo sabantu, kuyaphuthuma ukuthi amazwe athintekile angathatha izinyathelo ezisebenza ngempela ukuze akwazi ukubhekana nemiphumela yawo. Futhi ukuthi, ngemuva kokuthuthuka kwayo, izinguquko emazingeni okushisa nasemaphethini emvula nemimoya zenzeka emhlabeni.

Masazi ukuthi iyini imiphumela yayo:

  • Emhlabeni jikelele: amarekhodi okushisa, izinguquko ekusakazeni komkhathi, ukuvela kwezifo okunzima ukuziqeda (njengekholera), ukulahleka kwezitshalo nezilwane.
  • ENingizimu Melika: ukwehla kwengcindezi yasemkhathini, ukufudumala kwezikhathi zeHumboldt zamanje nezomswakama kakhulu lapho imvula inamandla kakhulu.
  • ENingizimu-mpumalanga Asia: ukwakheka kwamafu okuphansi, isomiso esinzima nokwehla kwezinga lokushisa olwandle

Noma kunjalo, kubalulekile ukuqaphela lokho abekho o-El Niño ababili abafanayo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi izindawo ezithinteke okokugcina kungenzeka zingaphinde zithinteke. Bazoba namathuba aphezulu, yebo, kepha awukwazi ngokuqinisekile.

Ubudlelwano phakathi kwe-El Niño nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu

Ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu emhlabeni

Yize kungakaziwa kahle ukuthi ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu kunomthelela muni ku-El Niño, ososayensi abaningana baveza ku ukutadisha eshicilelwe kumagazini i-Nature ngo-2014 ukuthi imvamisa yale nto, kanye namandla ayo, kungenzeka inyuke njengoba izinga lokushisa lomhlaba jikelele likhuphuka. Kodwa-ke, i-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ayisithathi lesi sixhumanisi njengesifakazelwe, kungani?

Impendulo ithi lapho sikhuluma ngokushintsha kwesimo sezulu sikhuluma ngokuthambekela kwesimo sezulu, kuyilapho into ye-El Niño ingokwehluka kwemvelo. Kodwa-ke, kukhona ezinye izazi zezulu, njengoJorge Carrasco, abavumelana nocwaningo ukuthi ezweni elifudumele, ukuqina nobuningi be-El Niño kuzokhuphuka.

Njengoba sibonile, i-El Niño yinto engaba nemiphumela eminingi futhi ebalulekile ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zomhlaba. Ukuze siphephe, kubalulekile ukuthi sinciphise ukukhishwa kwamagesi abamba ukushisa ukuze sivikele izinga lokushisa elingaqhubeki nokukhuphuka, ngoba uma singenzi kanjalo, ngaphezu kwemiphumela yokuguquka kwesimo sezulu, kuzofanele sizivikele esimeni esibi kakhulu se-El Niño.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.