Yini i-ecotone

I-ecotone yemvelo

Lapho sifunda noma sizwa izwi ecotone Kuvame kakhulu ukuthi sididanise umqondo noma nokuthile okuhlobene nethoni yemvelo. Yigama elingasetshenziswanga kusilulumagama esijwayelekile, ngakho-ke, incazelo ayijwayele ukwaziwa. I-ecotone imane nje iyindawo yokushintshela kwemvelo phakathi kwezindawo ezimbili zemvelo ezahlukahlukene neziseduze.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ukuthi ziyini izici ze-ecotone nokuthi zakhiwa kanjani.

Yini i-ecotone

I-ecotone yindawo yemvelo ekhona phakathi kwemvelo enezici ezahlukahlukene. Isibonelo, singathola indawo yenguquko phakathi kwehlathi nethafa. Ihlathi aligcini iphuzu noma, kepha ubukhulu balo bancipha kancane kancane. Umkhawulo wemvelo okhona phakathi kwemvelo ungaba ngamamitha angamakhulu amaningana noma amakhilomitha. Izinhlelo zingaba:

  • Ama-Biomes. I-biome yindawo yezwe echazwe ngochungechunge lwezici zesimo sezulu kanye nokwakheka komhlaba okunquma uhlaza nezilwane esizithola kuwo.
  • Namathafa.Lapho sihlaziya ukwakheka komhlaba siyabona ukuthi ukuphela kohlobo lwe-ecosystem akuchazwa ngokuphelele kepha ukuthi, njengoba kuyindawo yemvelo, inezigaba zayo zokuguquka phakathi kwendawo eyodwa ephela nendawo elandelayo eqala.
  • Izinhlelo zemvelo.I-ecosystem yindawo lapho kuhlangana khona izinhlobo eziningi ezihlangana zodwa futhi ezinezakhi ze-abiotic.
  • Imiphakathi noma abantu. Kulokhu, sikhuluma ngezinhlobo zezitshalo nezinhlobo zezihlahla. Yizinhlobo ezimele kakhulu izindawo eziguqukayo phakathi kwezinhlelo ezahlukahlukene.

Kungani ifomu le-ecotone

Ukuphela kohlelo lwemvelo

Lezi zindawo zenguquko zakhiwa ngenxa yesenzo sokuhlukahluka komzimba nokwemvelo. Phakathi kwezici ezinethonya elikhulu kukhona isimo sezulu, ubume bendawo, ukwakheka nokwakheka kwenhlabathi noma ubukhona bezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zabantu, noma ngabe kuyizilwane noma izitshalo, okubizwa nge-biotope.

Ngokuya ngalezi eziguqukayo namanani azo, ushintsho lungaba ngokungazelelwe noma luqhubeke kancane. Isibonelo, ukuba khona kwenkambo yomfula kungaba ukuphela kohlelo oluthile nokuqala kolunye ngokungazelelwe. Kodwa-ke, ukuba khona kwentaba nomthambeka obonakalayo, kungadala ukuphela kwehlathi ukuthi liguquke kancane kancane.

Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi le ndawo emaphakathi ine-confluence enkulu yezinto eziphilayo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kunokusebenzisana phakathi kwezinhlobo zezilwane ezindaweni eziseduze. Siphinde futhi sithole umcebo omkhulu wezinto eziphilayo. Njengoba ukuxhumana okukhulu kukhona phakathi kwabantu bezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene, ukulungiswa okuningi kuyokwenzeka kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lwendawo noma i-biotope. Lesi senzakalo saziwa njengomphumela onqenqemeni.

Uhlobo ngalunye noma umphakathi wezinhlobo ezithile usebenza ngendlela ethile kuye ngezimo zemvelo ezikhona ku-ecotone. Isibonelo, lezi zimo kungenzeka kungenxa ye- uhlobo lwe-pH yenhlabathi, izinga lokushisa elijwayelekile, isigameko semisebe yelanga, umbuso womoya noma inani lamanzi atholakalayo, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokubheka amanani alezi zinto eziguqukayo nokuxhumana phakathi kwezinto eziphilayo, siyabona ukuthi uhlobo ngalunye luyogcwalisa ngokukhethekile umsebenzi ngaphakathi kwe-ecotone. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi yi-niche yemvelo. Singathola ama-niches emvelo lapho imisebenzi yomuntu ngamunye ophilayo ingaba ngabahleli, ukubola kwemisebenzi, ukuthutha, noma ukuhambisa, phakathi kwabanye.

Izinhlobo ze-Ecotone

Izindawo zezinguquko

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ze-ecotone ngokuya ngohlobo lwe-ecosystem olukhona phakathi kwendawo yezinguquko. Lezi zindawo zingahlukaniswa noma zihlukaniswe ngezigaba ngezindlela ezahlukene.

1º Uma sibhekisa ohlotsheni lwe-biome, ama-ecotone azonqunywa yizimo zezulu ezifana ne amanzi, izinga lokushisa kanye nesimo sendawo.

2nd Uma sibhekisa ohlotsheni lwe-landscape, ama-ecotones azobonakala ngokuthiwa uhlobo lwesimo sezulu, isimo sendawo kanye nezinye izici zamakhemikhali zenhlabathi nazo zingafakwa.

Okwesithathu uma sikhuluma ngama-ecotones wabantu noma imiphakathi, kufanele sikhulume ngakho ithonya lokusebenzisana phakathi kwezinhlobo nomphumela wazo ekwakhiweni nasatshalalisweni kwazo.

Sizobeka izibonelo ze-ecotones nezimpawu zazo:

I-Tundra ne-taiga enehlathi elibusayo

Uma siya eMelika naseYurophu siyabona ukuthi kunemingcele phakathi kwe-tundra kanye nehlathi elibolile. Lesi yisibonelo se-ecotone phakathi kwama-biomes amabili ahlukene abonakala ngokuba nesimo sezulu esihlukile phakathi kwalowo nalowo kubo. Ku-tundra sithola izindawo ezibandayo ezinamazinga okushisa angadluli kuma-degree ayishumi ngokwesilinganiso. Imvula imvamisa iba ngama-250mm ngonyaka. Esinye sezici ezivelele kule ndawo yi-permafrost. Kuyinhlabathi ehlala iqandisiwe unyaka wonke.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinehlathi elibushelelezi eliseningizimu yetundras. Kulesi simiso semvelo izinga lokushisa elijwayelekile lisuka kuma-30 degrees ngaphansi kuka-zero kuya kuma-19 degrees. Imvula yayo iphakathi kuka-400 no-450mm ngokwesilinganiso ngonyaka. Ngakho-ke, i-ecotone eyenzeka phakathi kwala ma-biomes amabili ayinabisi kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, eYurophu singathola i-ecotone efinyelela kumakhilomitha angama-200 ubude. Kubonakala ngokuba yindawo ehlukanisiwe lapho kunezindawo ezimbozwe ngamahlathi aminyene nezinye lapho ubulembu no-heather kubusa khona.

Amaxhaphozi

Olunye uhlobo lwe-ecotone oluhamba phakathi kwendawo yomhlaba kanye nemvelo yasemanzini. Le ndawo yezinguquko idlala indima ebalulekile ekukhucululweni kwendle kwemvelo, ngakho-ke ukulondolozwa kwayo kubalulekile. Le ndawo isiza ukuthuthukisa ikhwalithi yamanzi ngokubamba indle, ukumunca izakhi zomzimba, nokukhipha amakhemikhali. Lezi ecotones kungaba:

  • I-Oasis ehlane.
  • Ihlathi-i-savanna-desert.
  • Indawo yehlathi-páramo-izimila ezinokuphakama okuphansi.
  • Litoral

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, kuyadingeka ukonga zonke lezi zindawo ngoba zinokubaluleka okukhulu kwemvelo. Kuyizinguquko zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zokuphila emhlabeni wonke ezingayeki ukunikela ngengxenye yazo ekuthuthukiseni izidalwa eziphilayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.