I-Deuterium

isakhiwo se-athomu

Namuhla sizokhuluma nge-isotope esetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza amandla enuzi. Imayelana ne- deuterium. Ingenye yezinhlobo ze-isotope ze-hydrogen futhi imelwe ngophawu D noma 2H. Inikezwe igama elijwayelekile i-hydrogen esindayo ngoba isisindo siphindwe kabili kunaleso se-proton. I-isotope ayilutho ngaphandle kohlobo oluvela entweni efanayo yamakhemikhali kodwa inenani elihlukile lobukhulu. I-Deuterium isetshenziselwa izinhloso ezahlukahlukene.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela ngazo zonke izici, ukwakheka, izakhiwo nokusetshenziswa kwe-deuterium.

Izici eziyinhloko

deuterium

Umehluko phakathi kwe-deuterium ne-hydrogen kungenxa yokwehluka kwenani lama-neutron elinalo. Ngalesi sizathu, i-deuterium ibhekwa njenge-isotope ezinzile futhi ingatholwa kumakhemikhali akhiwa yi-hydrogen yemvelaphi yemvelo ngokuphelele. Kumele kukhunjulwe ukuthi, yize zivela emvelweni, zenzeka ngesilinganiso esincane. Ngokunikezwa kwezakhiwo inendawo efana ne-hydrogen ejwayelekile, ungayifaka esikhundleni sayo ngokuphelele ekuphenduleni lapho ibamba iqhaza khona. Ngale ndlela, ingaguqulwa ibe izinto ezifanayo.

Ngalesi sizathu nezinye, i-deuterium inenombolo enkulu yezicelo ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene zesayensi. Sekuyiminyaka yaba yinto ebaluleke kakhulu yocwaningo nentuthuko kwezobuchwepheshe nolwazi.

Isakhiwo esikhulu sale isotopu sakhiwe nge-nucleus ene-proton ne-neutron. Inesisindo se-athomu cishe sama-2,014 amagremu. Le isotope yatholwa ngenxa kaHarold C. Urey, usokhemisi wase-United States, kanye nababambisene naye uFerdinand Brickwedde noGeorge Murphy, ngo-1931. Ukulungiselela ukuhlangana ne-deuterium esimweni sayo esimsulwa kwenziwa ngempumelelo okokuqala ngqa ngo-1933. Sekuvele ngama-50s lapho isigaba esiqinile esikhombise ukuzinza okukhulu, okwaziwa njenge-lithium deuteride, siqala ukusetshenziswa. Le nto ingashintsha i-deuterium ne-tritium enanini elikhulu lokuphendula kwamakhemikhali.

Ukuthuthuka kwesayensi kwenzeka lapho kutholakala into engakwazi ukuhambisa ukusabela kwamakhemikhali ekukhiqizeni imikhiqizo. Ngalo mqondo, uma ubufunde ubuningi bale isotope ukuze ukwazi ukubona izinto ezithile. Kwaziwa ukuthi inani le-deuterium emanzini lihluka kancane ngokuya ngendawo lapho kuthathwa khona isampula. Kunezifundo ezithile ze-spectroscopy sinqume ukuba khona kwale isotope kwamanye amaplanethi emthaleni wethu. Lokhu kungabaluleka kakhulu ukutadisha ukwakheka kwezinye izidalwa zasezulwini.

Isakhiwo nemvelaphi ye-deuterium

isibani sedeuterium

Sizokwazi amaqiniso athile nge-deuterium. Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, umehluko omkhulu phakathi kwama-isotopu e-hydrogen usezakhiweni zawo. Futhi ingabe i-hydrogen, i-deuterium ne-tritium inamanani ahlukile ama-proton nama-neutron, ngakho-ke anezici ezahlukahlukene zamakhemikhali. Futhi kufanele ngikhumbule ukuthi i-deuterium ekhona ngaphakathi kweminye imizimba yezinkanyezi isuswa ngejubane elikhulu kunaleli eyavela ngalo. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu sokuthi kungani kunzima kangaka ukutadisha ubukhona be-deuterium emizimbeni yezinkanyezi.

Ezinye izinto zemvelo zibhekwa njengeziyakha inani elincane le-deuterium, ngakho-ke ukukhiqizwa kwalo kuyaqhubeka nokukhiqiza intshisekelo enkulu namuhla. Kusukela kumaphesenti esesishilo ngaphambili mayelana nokuba khona kwe-deuterium emvelweni, ayifiki ku-0.02%. Uchungechunge lophenyo lwesayensi luveze ukuthi iningi lama-athomu akhiwe kusuka ku-deuterium ngokwemvelo avela ekuqhumeni okwadala umsuka wendawo yonke owaziwa ngokuthi Big Bang. Lesi ngesinye sezizathu eziyinhloko zokuthi kungani i-deuterium kucatshangwa ukuthi ikhona kumaplanethi amakhulu njengeJupiter.

Indlela ejwayelekile yokuthola le isotopu ngokwemvelo kulapho ihlanganiswa ne-hydrogen. Uma lokhu kwenzeka, kuzohlanganiswa ngendlela ye-protium. Ososayensi banentshisekelo yokwazi ubudlelwane obusungulwe phakathi kwesilinganiso se- i-deuterium ne-hydrogen emikhakheni ehlukene yesayensi. Ifundwa kabanzi emagatsheni esayensi afana ne-astronomy noma i-climatology. Kula magatsha kunezinsiza ezithile ezisebenzayo zokwazi nokuqonda indawo yonke nomoya wethu.

Izici ze-deuterium

isotopes endaweni yonke

Sizokwazi ukuthi yiziphi izinto eziyinhloko le isotopu ye-hydrogen enazo. Into yokuqala okufanele uyenze ukwazi ukuthi yini i-isotope engenazo izici ezinemisebe. Lokhu kusho ukuthi izinzile impela emvelweni. Ingasetshenziselwa ukufaka esikhundleni i-hydrogen ezinhlakalweni ezahlukahlukene zamakhemikhali. Ngokuba nokuzinza okukhulu ngokwemvelo, ikhombisa isimilo esihlukile kwi-hydrogen ejwayelekile. Lokhu kwenzeka kukho konke ukusabela okunemvelo yamakhemikhali. Kuyadingeka ukuthi wazi ngaphambi kokufaka esikhundleni, ukuthi yize ingafinyelelwa ngokushintshanisa i-hydrogen nge-deuterium ekuphendukeni kwamakhemikhali, kufanele kwaziwe ukuthi bazoba nokuziphatha okuhlukile.

Lapho kushintshwa ama-athomu amabili e-hydrogen asemanzini, ingxube eyaziwa ngokuthi amanzi asindayo ingatholwa. I-hydrogen ekhona olwandle futhi esesimweni se-deuterium inikeza kuphela inani elingu-0,016% maqondana ne-protium. Endaweni yonke, le isotopu inomkhuba wokuhlangana ngokushesha okukhulu ukuze kuphume i-helium. Uma sihlanganisa i-deuterium ne-oxygen ye-athomu siyabona ukuthi iba uhlobo olunobuthi. Ngaphandle kwalokhu, nezakhi zamakhemikhali noma ezifana kakhulu ne-hydrogen.

Esinye sezici zalesi isotopu ukuthi lapho ama-athomu e-deuterium engaphansi kwenqubo yokuhlanganiswa kwenuzi emazingeni okushisa aphakeme, amandla amakhulu angakhishwa. Kungukufuduka, okufundile ukuze ukwazi ukufaka ukuhlangana kwenuzi kweplanethi yethu. Ezinye izinto ezibonakalayo ezifana nephuzu elibilayo, ukushisa kwe-vaporization, iphuzu eliphindwe kathathu nobuningi zinamakhulu amakhulu kunalawo e-hydrogen.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-deuterium nezici zayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.