Uhambo luka-Apollo

Inyanga nobuso bayo

Uma kukhona ongakucabanga ngokuthi ngabe umuntu unelukuluku yini noma cha, usufinyelele enyangeni noma, okungenani, ushiya iplanethi yethu futhi uhlale isikhashana emkhathini. Ukukhipha imininingwane evela ngaphandle kubalulekile kumuntu maqondana nokusebenza kweplanethi yethu kanye ne Uhlelo lomkhathi nendawo yonke. Kuze kube manje, ekupheleni kukaJulayi 1960, i-NASA yamemezela ukuthi uhlelo lwe-Apollo luzokwethulwa. I- Uhambo luka-Apollo Baziwa emhlabeni wonke futhi nangaphambilini, kwakukhona isifiso esikhulu sokwazi ngomhlaba ngabantu.

Kule ndatshana sizofingqa izici zemishini ye-Apollo kanye nokubaluleka ababa nakho ekutholeni isayensi.

Uhlelo lwe-Apollo

Ekuqaleni kokudalwa kohlelo lwe-Apollo, bekucatshangwa nje ukuthi kuzoba uhlobo lohambo lokuthola indawo enhle yokuhlala emhlabeni enyangeni. Okubaluleke kangaka, kepha ngasikhathi sinye, okuyingozi akufanele kuthathwe kancane. Lokho kusho ukuthi, besikhuluma ngomuntu onyathela kwenye indawo engeyona iplanethi yethu, kodwa inkanyezi yethu, inyanga. Ngalesi senzo bekudingeka sikulungele ukuyofuna indawo efanele ukuze kungadali izinkinga.

Konke lokhu kwakuyindlela yokuqala. Kodwa-ke, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kwaba nezingcindezi eziningi emjahweni wasemkhathini nokungabi nasineke kokuba umuntu anyathele inyanga ngokushesha okukhulu. Lokhu kuholele ekutheni imishini ka-Apollo ibingahloselwe ukuqinisekisa indawo ekahle yokufika, kodwa iphrojekthi ecacile yokuthi umuntu anyathele inyanga okokuqala ngqa.

Ngalezo zikhathi, umongameli wase-United States kwakunguJohn F. Kennedy, impi ebandayo yayisiba yimbi ngenxa ye-USSR. Lo mongameli nguyena owamemezela emhlabeni wonke ukuthi umuntu uzofika enyangeni ngaphambi kokuphela kweminyaka yama-60 futhi uzobuya ephephile futhi ephilile. Lokhu kudale ukuthi ukuthunywa kuka-Apollo kuqale ukuba nentshisekelo emhlabeni wonke futhi izindaba ngayinye zilandelwa ngentshiseko.

I-Apollo 11, umsebenzi owaziwa kakhulu

Ukufika kwenyanga

Ngubani ongakaze ezwe ngomlando oyinganekwane we-Apollo 11? Kwakumayelana nomsebenzi owagcina uthathe umuntu waya enyangeni (yize lokhu kubuzwa kakhulu namhlanje ukuthi kwakuyimontage ephelele). Kwenzeka ngoJulayi 20, 1969, noRichard Nixon njengomongameli. Umkhankaso i-Apollo 11 yiwona owakwazi ukuhlala enyangeni usungulwe osomkhathi ababili, uNeil Armstrong no-Edwin Buzz Aldrin. Omunye umlingani wakhe kwakudingeka ahlale emkhunjini egcina umzila ozungeza umhlaba.

Umuntu wokuqala ukubeka unyawo enyangeni futhi, ngakho-ke, owathatha lonke udumo nokwaziwa, kwakunguNeil Armstrong. Ngakho-ke, impela awukaze uzwe ngomlingani wakhe. Abantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-500 bakwazi ukubona ukufika komuntu enyangeni kumathelevishini abo.

Uhlelo lwe-Apollo lwalungagcini ngokuthola lo msebenzi, kodwa lwaluneziningi zazo lapho kwakungekho basebenzi khona. Le mishini ibivivinya kakhulu amaphutha noma izingozi ezingenzeka lapho sezisemkhathini. Futhi ibinemishini enamalungu ayi-12. Kwemishini engu-12 eseyiqediwe, emithathu bekufanele izungeze uMhlaba, emibili bekufanele izungeze inyanga, imishini eyodwa ikhishwe isisu, eminye imishini emi-3 ikhanseliwe ngenxa yezizathu zomnotho kwathi eyisithupha yayo yakwazi ukuhlala enyangeni. Ngakho-ke, abangu-3 kube osomkhathi abakwaze ukuhamba kusathelayithi yethu, inyanga. Laba osomkhathi abangu-6 yibo: UNeil Armstrong, u-Edwin Aldrin, uConrad Charles, u-Alan Bean, u-Alan Shepard, u-Edgar Mitchell, uDavid Scott, uJames Irwin, uJohn Young, uCharles Duke, uCernan Gene noHarrison Schmitt.

Intshisekelo yemishini ye-Apollo

umhlaba kusuka enyangeni

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, ukunaka komphakathi olwazini nasekuhloleni indawo yonke kwehla. Namuhla ababaningi abantu abalindele ukuhlangana noma ukuthola amaplanethi amasha, imithala emisha, njll. Akukho okusamangaza manje. Kwenzeka okufanayo nangemishini ka-Apollo. Ubebonakala engasenandaba nomphakathi lapho i-Apollo 13 mission yakwazi ukubuyisa ukunakekelwa komhlaba. Kwakuyindiza yesikhombisa yeNASA yaya emkhathini kanti okwesithathu iya ezweni.

Umkhumbi, ophethwe nguJames Novell, uJohn L. "Jack" Swigert noFred W. Haise. yayaziwa nge "Houston, sinenkinga". Iphume ngo-Ephreli 11, 1970 futhi yaqala ngokuqhuma kwethangi lomoya-mpilo. Lesi bekungokokuqala kuphela kwezinkinga eziningi obekufanele zenziwe yile mishini. Ngokusobala, ngezinkinga eziningi kangaka, umsebenzi we-Apollo 13 awufinyelelanga enyangeni. Kwakudingeka ukuthi alwe namandla alinganiselwe ababenawo, ukulahlekelwa ukushisa egumbini lokulala, kungabi namanzi okuphuza futhi kunesidingo esiphuthumayo sokulungisa izinhlelo ezazikhipha i-CO2 emvelweni womkhumbi.

Ekugcineni, naphezu kwazo zonke izinkinga, u-Apollo 13 ukwazile ukuhlala futhi eMhlabeni ngaphandle kwezinkinga ezinkulu futhi iHollywood yalusebenzisa lolu daba ukuze yenze ifilimu yayo kwelinye lamafilimu adume kakhulu ngalezo zikhathi.

Ukuphela kwemishini ka-Apollo

Uhambo luka-Apollo olwafika enyangeni

Lolu hlelo lwaqhubeka kwaze kwaba nguDisemba 1972, lapho lwanqanyulwa khona. Izindleko zotshalomali kulolu hlelo ngenhloso yokunyathela inyanga kwakungu- $ 20.443.600.000. Ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu okwenziwe kubasebenzi nakwezobuchwepheshe ukuthuthukisa, ulwazi olutholwe enyangeni aluzange lusebenze ngokwanele ukuthi imisebenzi eminingi iye enyangeni. "Ukuhambela inyanga kuyabiza futhi akwenzi nzuzo kakhulu."

Akukhona kuphela ukuthi i-Apollo 13 eyaphahlazekile yaba ukuphela kohlelo lokuhluleka. U-Apollo 1 wayengowokuqala wezithunywa ze-Apollo ukwenziwa. Umlilo odalwe kolunye lwezivivinyo ezedlule udale ukuthi kufe iqembu lonke.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngemishini ye-Apollo nokubaluleka kwayo.

 


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.