Konke odinga ukukwazi ngomhlabathi we-andosol

Emhlabeni wonke kunezinhlobo ezahlukene zenhlabathi. Lezi zinhlobo zenhlabathi ziyahlukahluka ngokuya ngobuningi bazo, ukwakheka kwazo ngokomzimba nangokwamakhemikhali, ukujula kwayo, i-porosity, ukuvuleka kwayo nombala wayo, phakathi kwezinye izici. Namuhla sizokhuluma ngohlobo lomhlabathi obizwa ngokuthi andosol. Luhlobo lwenhlabathi yentaba-mlilo eyakha umlotha wentaba-mlilo nengilazi kanye nezinye izinto zokwakha izintaba-mlilo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici nezakhiwo i-andosol enazo.

Izici eziyinhloko

Amakhemikhali e-Andosol

Luhlobo lomhlabathi olumila ezindaweni ezinentaba-mlilo. Lapho zisencane zinombala omnyama futhi zinokungena kakhulu. Le porosity ingenxa yohlobo lwedwala okwakhiwe ngalo. Njengoba sazi, inhlabathi yakhiwa ikakhulukazi edwaleni. Leli dwala belihlakazeka futhi liguquka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi nokwenziwa kokuhlukile ama-geological agents. Ngokuya ngohlobo lwe-ejenti ye-geological evelele endaweni kanye nezimpawu zokwakheka kwenhlabathi eshiwo, sizoba nohlobo oluthile noma olunye.

I-Andosol inhlabathi enokungena okuphezulu, isakhiwo esihle futhi okulula ukukhiya. Inokuzala okukhulu yize inemikhawulo ethile uma kukhulunywa ngokuzisebenzisela ezolimo. Kodwa-ke, ngumhlabathi osetshenziswa kabanzi emkhakheni wezolimo noma kunini lapho izimo zosizo zikuvumela. Indawo yalolu hlobo lwenhlabathi ngokuvamile isezindaweni ezinohlobo lwe-volcanism esebenzayo.

Le nhlabathi ngokwesiko ibithathwa njengesibusiso kumasiko athuthukayo nakubantu. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi le mpucuko ingahlala kule nhlabathi yize kunezingozi zemvelo ezingasongela njengoba zinezinga elihle lokuzala. Uma sihlaziya ukuqina kwezindawo ezisemadolobheni kanye nabantu abasathuthuka, njengamazwe aseNingizimu Melika, siyabona ukuthi izintaba zase-Andes zinezintaba-mlilo ezikhuthele futhi zinqunyelwe amazwe amancane kakhulu avundile afana namahlathi asezindaweni ezishisayo.

I-andosol yilowo mhlabathi one-Vitric noma i-Anndic horizon. Lawa mahhoroni aqala ngamasentimitha angama-25 ukujula ngenxa yalokhu komhlaba. Ayinayo enye i-horizons yokuxilonga ngaphandle kokuthi ingcwatshwe yizinhlabathi noma enye inhlabathi futhi imvamisa yenzeka ekujuleni okungaba ngamasentimitha angama-50.

Incazelo eningiliziwe ye-andosol

I-Andosol esetshenziswa ezitshalweni

Le yinhlabathi enokuthambekela kombala omnyama kanye namathafa entaba-mlilo ngokuphelele. Okuqukethwe ngumzali ikakhulukazi kungumlotha wentaba-mlilo, yize kungenziwa futhi tuffs, pumice, umlotha nezinye ejecta yentaba-mlilo. Imvelo yale nhlabathi imvamisa izungezwe iziqalo ezingavuleki eziyizintaba. Idinga umswakama, i-arctic ezifundeni ezishisayo ezinezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezimila. Yilesi sinhlobonhlobo semifino esivumela inhlabathi ukuthi ibe nezinga eliphezulu lezakhamzimba.

Mayelana nokwakhiwa kwephrofayili yale nhlabathi, imvamisa iba nephrofayili ye-AC noma ye-ABC. Isendlalelo B salo mhlabathi sincike ekutheni sijule kangakanani. Imvamisa lo mkhuba wokushintsha ngokujula uvame ukuba khona kuleyo nhlabathi enobumba obuningi. Kungumhlabathi onesimo sezulu esisheshayo esihlala ngaphakathi ukuguqulwa okuphezulu kwe-biogeochemical ngenxa yezakhi zezinto zentaba-mlilo enazo. Lezi zinto zinokungena kakhulu futhi ziholela ekuqongeleleni kwezakhiwo ezizinzile zombili izinto eziphilayo nezamaminerali njenge-imogolite ne-ferrihydrite.

Ukusetshenziswa nokwakhiwa kwe-andosol

ama-horizons ngokujula

Ukusetshenziswa okuyinhloko kwe-andosol kulinywa. Ukuba wuhlobo lomhlabathi onezinga eliphezulu lokuzala, usetshenziselwa ukukhulisa izitshalo ezahlukahlukene. Umkhawulo omkhulu esishilo ngenhla ngamandla awo amakhulu wokugcina i-phosphorus ngendlela engatholakali ngokutholakala. Lokho kungukuthi, ngumhlabathi okwazi ukuba namazinga aphezulu e-phosphorus kepha ongeke usetshenziswe noma ufakwe yizimpande zezitshalo. Lokhu kuyenza ibe inhlabathi ethambile ngampela ngoba, yize inenani lomsoco omangazayo, ayinakusetshenziswa isitshalo. Futhi, iningi lale nhlabathi litholakala ezindaweni ezinjengobuningi bendawo.

Lapho inhlabathi itholakala ezindaweni ezinokukhululeka okukhulu nezindawo eziphakeme kakhulu, imvamisa kuyimikhawulo enikezwa ngenhloso yokuyilima. Uma inhlabathi inokukhululeka okukhulu, ngeke ibe nokusatshalaliswa okuhle kumaphrofayli nakuma-horizons lapho kutholakala khona izakhamzimba ezidingekayo ekunikezeni isitshalo. Futhi, kufanele sicabangele ukugeleza ngemvula. Endaweni ethambile, imvula ikhiqiza ukugeleza okukhulu okuzogcina kuhudula ingxenye enkulu yamaphrofayli anezinga eliphakeme lezakhamzimba ukuze isivuno sikhule ezimeni ezinhle.

Lolu hlobo lomhlabathi lubonakala ngokuba khona kwe-Andic Horizon noma i-Vitric Horizon. Lezo zindawo zokukhanya ze-Andean zicebile ngamaminerali afana ne-Alofan futhi anezakhiwo eziphakeme ze-humus ne-aluminium ngenkathi umkhathizwe we-Vitric uqukethe ingilazi yentaba-mlilo ngobuningi.

Ukwakheka kwalolu hlobo lwenhlabathi kuncike kakhulu kwi isimo sezulu esisheshayo samakhemikhali, i-porosity, amandla okungena, inani lezinto ezicijile, kanye nokuba khona kwezinto eziphilayo. Zonke lezi zinto eziguqukayo yilezo ezichaza uhlobo lomhlabathi oluzokwakhiwa endaweni ethile.

Ama-propiedades

Kuzici ze-morphological ze-andosol ejwayelekile sithola ama-horizons e-AC noma e-ABC. Umkhawulo wokuqala uvame ukuba mnyama kakhulu futhi umanzi ukwedlula konke okunye. Okuqukethwe kwezinto eziphilayo kule ndawo ephezulu cishe kungu-8% yize kungatholakala ukuthi kunokufika kuma-30% ezintweni eziphilayo.

Iningi lale nhlabathi linamapayipi amahle wangaphakathi ngenxa yokuphakama kwawo okuphezulu. Ngakho-ke, zingumhlabathi othakazelisa kakhulu ngokombono wokunisela okuphumelelayo. Le porosity eshisayo ivimbela amanzi emvula ekuqoqeni, okuyisici esinqumayo ekuthuthukiseni izitshalo eziningi.

Inenani elikhulu lamaminerali ezinja ze-magnesia njengoba enjalo i-olivine, ama-pyroxenes nama-amphiboles. Ibuye ibe ne-feldspars ne-quartz evela ezingxenyeni zesihlabathi nezodaka. Ukuzinza kwabo okuhle nokuhlangana kwamanzi okuphezulu kwenza le nhlabathi imelane nokuguguleka kwamanzi. Lokhu kungenye inzuzo ebaluleke kakhulu kubo ukuthi isetshenziswe ezitshalweni.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-andosol.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.