Amatshe agneous

izici zamatshe angenalutho

Phakathi kwezinhlobo ezahlukene zamatshe esinawo amatshe angenalutho. Ubuso beplanethi yethu bugcwele amadwala nezinhlobonhlobo zamaminerali. Kodwa-ke, amadwala ane-igneous abaluleke kakhulu ngoba ungqimba olungaphezulu lomhlaba luyi-95% lwawo. Amanye aziwa kakhulu njengegranite ne-obsidian, yize kunezinhlobonhlobo zamatshe amgagasi owazi ngokuqinisekile.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela zonke izici nemvelaphi yamatshe angenalutho.

Izici eziyinhloko

amatshe angenalutho

Abizwa nangokuthi amadwala e-magmatic futhi akhiwa lapho idwala elincibilikisiwe ngesimo se-magma liqala ukuphola. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho le magma isiqala ukuphola khona lapho amaminerali aqala khona ukugcizelela futhi abambe imininingwane yawo. IMagma ingapholiswa ngezindlela ezimbili. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinokupholisa ebusweni bomhlaba okwenzeka ngenxa yomphumela wokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo. Enye indlela yokupholisa ingaphakathi kwe-lithosphere. I-lithosphere iyisendlalelo esiqinile sobuso bomhlaba. Iningi lalawa matshe lakhiwa ngaphansi koqweqwe lomhlaba futhi libizwa ngamatshe ane-plutonic igneous. Amadwala apholile ebusweni aziwa njengamadwala wentaba-mlilo.

Yize lezi zinhlobo zamadwala zakha amaphesenti amakhulu aphezulu engxenyeni engenhla yoqweqwe lomhlaba, zivame ukutholakala ngaphansi kongqimba lwe Amatshe we-Metamorphic namatshe asezintabeni. Zinokubaluleka okukhulu emkhakheni we-geology kanye nezici zazo nokwakhiwa kwazo kusiza ukuqonda ingubo yomhlaba. Ukwakheka kwengubo yoMhlaba nazo zonke izinto ezidlule ze-tectonic kusisiza ukuthi siqonde ukwakheka nezici zeplanethi yethu.

Ukwahlukaniswa kwamatshe agneous

amatshe plutonic

Ake sibheke ukuthi yiziphi izigaba ezikhona zamatshe angenalutho. Njengoba sibonile ngaphambili, imvamisa zihlukaniswa ngqo kusuka ekwakhekeni kwazo. Uma zipholile engxenyeni engenhla yoqweqwe lomhlaba, zibizwa ngamadwala e-volcanic igneous ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma zipholile ngaphakathi kwe-lithosphere zaziwa njengamadwala we-plutonic igneous. Ama-Plutonics abizwa nangokuthi amadwala angenayo ngoba akhe ngaphakathi kwe-lithosphere. Lapha i-magma iyaphola ngenqubo ehamba kancane kakhulu enikeza amatshe anamakristalu amakhulu. Lezi zinhlayiya zingabonakala kalula.

Ama-plutonic igneous rocks ahanjiswa emhlabeni ngokuguguleka noma i-tectonic deformation. Akufanele sikhohlwe ukuthi ubuso bomhlaba benziwe izingcwecwe zetectonic ezihambayo. Ukufuduka kucishe kunganakwa ngabantu kepha sikhuluma ngesilinganiso sesikhathi sokuma komhlaba.Amaxoxo asePlutonic abizwa ngokuthi ama-pluton ngoba ayizidlakela ezinkulu zemagma lapho zakhiwa khona. Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi inhliziyo yezintaba ezinkulu kunazo zonke yakhiwa ngamatshe angenayo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amadwala aqhumayo noma amadwala entaba-mlilo akhiwa lapho imagma ixoshelwa ngaphandle komhlaba iphola ngokushesha okukhulu. Iningi lalawa matshe lidalwa umphumela wokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo nokupholisa kwe-magma ngejubane elikhulu. Amakristalu adalwe ngaphakathi kwalawa matshe mancane futhi akabonakali kangako esweni lomuntu. Kulolu hlobo lwamatshe kujwayelekile kakhulu ukubona ukwakheka kwezimbobo noma izimbobo ezishiywe ngamagwebu egesi futhi ezakhiwa ngenqubo yokuqinisa.

Ngaphandle kwalezi zigaba ezimbili ezinhle nathi sinabanye. Babizwa ngamatshe asePhilonia. Lamadwala aphakathi nendawo komunye nomunye. Lapho i-magma enkulu iqonde phezulu futhi iqina endleleni, yakha amadwala asePhylonia.

Izinhlobo zamadwala angenalutho

amadwala entaba-mlilo

Sizobona ukuthi yiziphi izigaba ezahlukahlukene zamatshe angenalutho ngokusho kwawo nokwakheka kwawo.

Ukuhlanganiswa

Amatshe agneous anezindlela ezilandelayo:

  • I-Vitreous: ukuthungwa okuvame kakhulu emadwaleni wentaba-mlilo. Lokhu kuthungatha kwakhiwa ngokuphonswa ngobudlova emkhathini nangokuthintwa ukupholisa kwejubane.
  • I-Aphanitic: Angamadwala entaba-mlilo anamakristalu angosayizi omncane kakhulu.
  • Izazi: zenziwe ngamanani amakhulu we-magma asetshenziswe kancane kancane nangokujula okukhulu.
  • I-Porphyritic: Angamadwala anamakristalu amakhulu enkabeni namancane ngaphandle. Lokhu kungenxa yokupholisa okungalingani. Indawo enamakristalu amakhulu selehlile kancane, kuyilapho ingxenye engaphandle enamakristalu amancane futhi esepholile ngokushesha okukhulu.
  • I-Pyroclastic: ama-pyroclast akhiqizwa ukuqhuma kohlobo lwentaba-mlilo. Awavamile ukuba namakristalu futhi akhiwa izingcezu zamatshe.
  • I-Pegmatitics: Yilawo anokudla okusanhlamvu okuluqhafuqhafu futhi akhiwa amakristalu angaphezu kwesentimitha elilodwa ububanzi. Zakhiwa lapho i-magma inenani elikhulu lamanzi nezinye izinto eziguquguqukayo.

Ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali

Sizobona ukuthi yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamatshe agneous kuya ngokwakhiwa kwamakhemikhali ngamunye wawo:

  • I-Félsicas: Yilawo madwala akhiwe kakhulu nge-silica esezingeni eliphansi kanye nemibala elula. Siyabona ukuthi uqweqwe lwamazwekazi lwakhiwa kakhulu yilolu hlobo lwamatshe futhi aqukethe cishe ama-10% amasilicates angacwengekile.
  • I-Andesitic: aqukethe okungenani ama-silicates amnyama angama-25%.
  • I-Mafic: lolu hlobo lwedwala imvamisa lucebe kakhulu kuma-silicates amnyama. Banobuningi obuphakeme nemibala emnyama futhi imvamisa bakha uqweqwe lwasolwandle.
  • I-Ultramafic: bane-90% yokwakheka kwabo ama-silicates amnyama. Imvamisa kungamatshe angavamile ukuthola ebusweni beplanethi.

Phakathi kwezibonelo ezaziwa kakhulu zamatshe agneous sine-granite, okuyidwala le-plutonic elijwayeleke kakhulu. Lokhu kuhlasela futhi kungenye yamatshe aziwa kakhulu wentaba-mlilo ngenxa. Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamatshe agneous kuya ngokwakhiwa kwawo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngamatshe angama-igneous nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.