Yini okuguqula amaphutha nokuthi akhiwa kanjani

Amaphutha wokuguqula izwekazi

Namuhla sizokhuluma ngesici esihlobene nama-plate tectonics: ukuguqula amaphutha. Ukuba khona kwayo kubeke ukwakheka kwezinhlobo eziningi zezinsiza futhi kubaluleke kakhulu kwi-geology. Kulokhu okuthunyelwe uzofunda ukuthi liyini iphutha eliguqulayo nokuthi lenziwa kanjani. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uzofunda ukuthi unomthelela onjani ku-geology yendawo.

Ngabe ufuna ukwazi konke okuphathelene nalokhu kwehluleka? Qhubeka ufunde 🙂

Izinhlobo zemiphetho phakathi kwamapuleti

Izinhlobo zemiphetho phakathi kwamapuleti

Njengoba umbono we-plate tectonics usho, uqweqwe lomhlaba luhlukaniswe ngamapuleti e-tectonic. Ipuleti ngalinye lihamba ngejubane elingaguquguquki. Emaphethelweni phakathi kwamapuleti kukhona umsebenzi owandayo wokuzamazama komhlaba ngenxa yamandla wokushayisana. Kunezinhlobo eziningana zamaphethelo phakathi kwamapuleti ngokuya ngohlobo lwawo. Zincike ekutheni uqwembe luyabhujiswa yini, lwenziwa noma lwaguqulwa nje.

Ukwazi umsuka wamaphutha wokuguqula, kufanele sazi izinhlobo zamaphethelo akhona phakathi kwamapuleti. Okokuqala, sithola imiphetho ehlukanisayo. Kuzo, imiphetho yamapuleti ihlukaniswe ngokwakhiwa kolwandle. Owesibili umphetho wokuhlangana lapho amapuleti amabili ezwekazi ehlangana khona. Ngokuya ngohlobo lwepuleti, kuzoba nomphumela ohlukile. Ekugcineni, sithola imiphetho yekwenziwa, lapho alikho idwala elenziwa noma elicekeleke phansi.

Emaphethelweni angenalutho kukhona izingcindezi ze-shear ezivela kumacwecwe. Amapuleti angaba olwandle, izwekazi, noma kokubili. Amaphutha okuguqula atholakala kulezo zindawo lapho amapuleti ahamba khona njengezingxenye ezingahambisani kahle nommango wolwandle. Ekuqaleni kwalo mbono kwakucatshangwa ukuthi imifula yolwandle zazakhiwe ngeketanga elide futhi eliqhubekayo. Lokhu bekungenxa yokuhamba okuvundlile eceleni kwephutha. Kodwa-ke, lapho kubhekwa kahle, bekungabonakala ukuthi ukufuduka kufana ncamashi nephutha. Lokhu kwenze ukuthi umkhombandlela odingekile wokukhiqiza ukufuduka kokhalo lwasolwandle awenzekanga.

Ukutholwa kwamaphutha okuguqula

Isici sephutha lokuguqula

Ukuguqula amaphutha kwatholakala ngaphambi nje kokudalulwa kwemfundiso yama-plate tectonics. Kutholwe ngu usosayensi uH. Huzo Wilson ngo-1965. WayengowaseYunivesithi yaseToronto futhi waphakamisa ukuthi la maphutha axhumeke emabhande asebenzayo omhlaba. Lawa mabhande yimiphetho eguqukayo neguqukayo esiyibonile ngaphambili. Wonke la mabhande asebenzayo omhlaba wonke ahlanganiswe kunethiwekhi eqhubekayo ehlukanisa umhlaba ube izingcwecwe eziqinile.

Ngakho-ke, uWilson waba usosayensi wokuqala ukuphakamisa ukuthi uMhlaba wakhiwa amapuleti ngamanye. Nguyena futhi obehlinzeka ngolwazi mayelana nokususwa okuhlukile okukhona emaphutheni.

Izici eziyinhloko

Iphutha Lokuguqula I-Oceanic

Iningi lamaphutha okuguqula lijoyina izingxenye ezimbili zomkhumbi ophakathi nolwandle. La maphutha ayingxenye yemigqa yamakhefu asolwandle olwaziwa njengezindawo zokuphuka. Lezi zindawo zihlanganisa amaphutha aguqulayo nazo zonke izandiso ezihlala zingasebenzi ngaphakathi kwepuleti. Izindawo eziqhekekayo zitholakala njalo kumakhilomitha ayi-100 ngasogwini lolwandle.

Amaphutha okuguqula asebenzayo kakhulu yilawo atholakala kuphela phakathi kwezingxenye ezimbili ezibalekile zokhalo. Ngaphansi kolwandle kunengxenye yomqolo ohamba uye kolunye uhlangothi kusuka kufulethini lolwandle olwenziwa. Ngakho-ke phakathi kwezigaba ezimbili zomugqa izingcwecwe ezimbili eziseduze ziyahlikihla njengoba zihamba ngephutha.

Uma sisuka endaweni esebenzayo yemifantu, sithola ezinye izindawo ezingasebenzi. Kulezi zindawo, ukuphuka kugcinwa sengathi kuyizibazi zesimo sendawo. Ukuma kwezindawo eziphukile kufana nokuqondiswa kokuhamba kwepuleti ngesikhathi kwakhiwa. Ngakho-ke, lezi zakhiwo zibalulekile lapho kwenziwa imephu yokuqondiswa kokunyakaza kwepuleti.

Enye indima yokuguqula amaphutha ukuhlinzeka izindlela okusikwe ngazo olwandle, okwakhiwe emaphethelweni omphetho, Ithuthelwa ezindaweni zokubhujiswa. Lezi zindawo lapho amapuleti ecekelwa phansi futhi abuyiselwa emuva ezingubeni zomhlaba zibizwa ngemisele yolwandle noma izindawo ezingaphansi.

Akuphi la maphutha?

Sika ephutheni leSan Andrés

Iningi lamaphutha okuguqula atholakala ngaphakathi kwamachibi olwandle. Kodwa-ke, njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili. kunemiphetho yamapuleti ehlukene. Ngakho-ke, amanye amaphutha awela uqweqwe lwamazwekazi. Isibonelo esidume kakhulu iphutha likaSan Andreas eCalifornia. Leli phutha lidala ukuzamazama komhlaba okuningi edolobheni. Lokho ulwazi lwakhe lokuthi ifilimu yenziwa ifanisa ukubhujiswa okubangelwe ukwehluleka.

Esinye isibonelo iphutha le-Alpine eNew Zealand. Iphutha leSan Andreas lixhumanisa isikhungo sokunweba esiseGulf of California nendawo eseCascade subduction kanye neMendocino Transforming Fault, etholakala ngasogwini olusenyakatho-ntshonalanga ye-United States. Ipuleti lasePacific lihamba libheke ngasenyakatho-ntshonalanga ngalo lonke iphutha laseSan Andreas. Ukulandela le nhlangano eqhubekayo, eminyakeni edlule indawo yaseBaja California kungaba isiqhingi esihlukile kusuka kulo lonke ugu olusentshonalanga ye-United States neCanada.

Njengoba lokhu kuzokwenzeka esikalini se-geological, akubalulekanga kakhulu ukukhathazeka njengamanje. Okufanele kube ukukhathazeka okuphelele ngukuthi umsebenzi wokuzamazama komhlaba odala iphutha. Kunokunyakaza okuningi kokuzamazama komhlaba okwenzeka kulezi zindawo. Ukuzamazama komhlaba yizona ezinquma izinhlekelele, ukulahleka kwempahla kanye nempilo. Izakhiwo zaseSan Andrés zilungiselelwe ukumelana nokuzamazama komhlaba. Kodwa-ke, kuye ngobucayi besimo, kungadala izinhlekelele zangempela.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, umhlaba wethu nolwandle olwandle kunzima ukuluqonda. Ukusebenza kwayo kuyinkimbinkimbi futhi ukutholwa kwayo kuyadingeka kakhulu. Ngalolu lwazi uzokwazi ukufunda kabanzi ngamaphutha aguqukayo kanye nemiphumela yokuthanjiswa komhlaba nolwandle.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.