Izilwane zeCarboniferous

imvelo nezilwane zeCarboniferous

Esikhathini se-Paleozoic kunezikhathi ezi-6 ezihlukene. Enye yazo yi- Isikhathi se-carboniferous. Kulesi sikhathi, inani elikhulu lamadiphozithi ekhabhoni litholakele kumarekhodi ezinsalela, yingakho igama lawo. Konke lokhu bekungenxa yenani elikhulu lamahlathi abengcwatshwe futhi aqhamuka nohlaka lwesikhutha. Kungenye yezizathu zokuthi kungani Izilwane zeCarboniferous kubaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni wonke.

Ngakho-ke, kule ndatshana sizohlaziya ukubaluleka kwezilwane zeCarboniferous nezimpawu zayo eziyinhloko.

Isikhathi seCarboniferous

Isikhathi seCarboniferous

Lesi sikhathi sasingenye yalezo ezigcina olunye ushintsho olukhulu ezingeni lezilwane nezitshalo. Esinye sezizathu yileso esikhombisa ukuthi izilwane eziphila ezweni nasemanzini zasuka emanzini ukuze zikwazi ukunqoba imvelo yasemhlabeni. Lokhu bekufanele ekuthuthukiseni iqanda le-amniote. Isikhathi seCarboniferous sihlala cishe iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-60. Iqale cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-359 edlule futhi yaphela cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-299 edlule.

Ngalesi sikhathi somsebenzi omkhulu we-geological waba nokuhlangenwe nakho. Kuyo izingcwecwe zetectonic zazinokunyakaza okubangelwe ukukhukhuleka kwezwekazi okunamandla kakhulu. Lokhu kuhamba kwenze ukuthi ezinye izingqimba zomhlaba zishayisane futhi zisungule izintaba.

Okunye okuvelele kwesikhathi seCarboniferous ukuvela kweqanda le-amniotic kanye nezilwane ezihuquzelayo zokuqala. Izilwane ezihuquzelayo kucatshangwa ukuthi zavela ezilwaneni eziphila emanzini nasemanzini. Ngenxa yokuvela kweqanda le-amniote, iqanda elivikelwe futhi lahlukaniswa nemvelo yangaphandle, lisize imibungu yavikelwa futhi izothuthukisa ukuvela kwemvelo. Lo mcimbi ukhiqize okuthile okuguqukayo eqenjini lezilwane ezihuquzelayo ngoba bangaqala ukunqoba imvelo yasemhlabeni. Kwavela sibonga ukujwayela ukungabuyeli emanzini ukubeka amaqanda.

Ngalesi sikhathi kube nezinguquko ezinkulu olwandle nasezixukwini zezwekazi. Lo msebenzi we-tectonic udale ukuthi uquqaba oluningi lwamazwekazi luthuthele ukuyokwakha izwekazi i-super eyaziwa ngokuthi iPangea. Ngokuqondene nesimo sezulu, ngesikhathi seCarboniferous kwakukhona isimo sezulu esifudumele. Lesi simo sezulu esishisayo nesinomswakama sabangela ukuthi inani elikhulu lohlaza lisabalale emhlabeni wonke. Kwavumela ukwakheka kwamahlathi kanye nokuthuthukiswa kanye nokwehlukaniswa kwezinye izinhlobo zokuphila. Abanye ochwepheshe baveza ukuthi izinga lokushisa eliseduze lalizungeze ama-degree angama-20. Inhlabathi yayinomswakama kakhulu futhi kwakhiwa amaxhaphozi amaningi kwezinye izindawo.

Izimbali nezimila

Ngokuqondene nezimbali zeCarboniferous, kwakukhona ukwehlukahluka kwamafomu akhona futhi kwakungenxa yezimo ezinhle zemvelo. Lesi simo sezulu esishisayo nesinomswakama sasiyindawo ekahle yokwakhiwa kwezitshalo unomphela. Lezi zitshalo ezigqame kakhulu bekuyi I-Pteridospermatophyta, i-Lepidodendrales, i-Cordaitales, i-equisetales ne-Lycopodiales.

Iqembu lokuqala laziwa ngokuthi yi-Seed Ferns. Kuyaziwa ukuthi bekuyizitshalo zangempela ezikhiqiza imbewu kanti igama lamafern kungenxa yokuthi linomumo ofanayo nowamanje. Zikhule eduze kakhulu nomhlabathi futhi zakha uthotho oluminyene lohlaza olugcina umswakama.

I-lepidodendrales kwakuyiqembu lezitshalo ezaqothuka ekuqaleni kwenkathi yamuva. Bafinyelele ebukhazikhazini babo obukhulu ngesikhathi seCarboniferous futhi bafinyelela kumamitha angama-30 ukuphakama. Ama-cordaitales ayeluhlobo lwezitshalo ezaqedwa ngesikhathi sokuqothulwa okukhulu kwe- Isikhathi se-Triassic y I-Jurassic. Isiqu saso sethule i-xylem eyinhloko neyesibili. Amaqabunga awo ayemakhulu impela, afinyelela kumitha ubude.

Izilwane zeCarboniferous

Izinsalela ze-carboniferous

Manje sizohlaziya izilwane zeCarboniferous. Ngalesi sikhathi izilwane zihluka kakhulu. Ngenxa yesimo sezulu esihle nezemvelo, cishe zonke izinhlobo zinegebe ekukhuleni. Isimo esinomswakama nesifudumele esingezwe ekutholakaleni okukhulu komoya-mpilo womhlaba sibe nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwenani elikhulu lezinhlobo. Phakathi kwezilwane lokho Izilwane ezivelele kakhulu zeCarboniferous yizilwane eziphila ezweni, izinambuzane nezilwane zasolwandle. Ekupheleni kwalesi sikhathi izilwane ezihuquzelayo zokuqala zavela.

Ake sihlaziye ama-arthropod kuqala. Ngesikhathi seCarboniferous kwakukhona izinhlobo eziningi ezinkulu ze-arthropods. Lezi zilwane kube yizihloko zezifundo eziningi ngochwepheshe. Ubukhulu obukhulu balezi zilwane kucatshangwa ukuthi bube ngenxa yokugxila okuphezulu komoya-mpilo.

I-Arthropleura

Kuyi-arthropod eyaziwa njenge-giant centipede. I-arthropod edume kakhulu kulesi sikhathi sonke. Futhi yilokho lafinyelela emamitheni ama-3 ubude futhi lalingaphansi kweqembu lama-myriapods. Kwakuyisilwane esifushane kakhulu futhi sasicishe sibe uhhafu wemitha ubude. Yayenziwe izingxenye ezibekwe zodwa futhi zimbozwe amapuleti.

Ama-Arachnids

Ngaphakathi kweqembu lama-arachnid avela esikhathini seCarboniferous, izinhlobo zezicabucabu ezaziwa ngokuthi iMesothelae zigqamile. Isici saso esiyinhloko kwakuwusayizi wayo omkhulu, owawucishe ulingane nekhanda lomuntu. Ukudla kwabo kwakudla ngokuphelele futhi babedla izilwane ezincane.

Ojekamanzi Abakhulu

Kule nkathi, kwakukhona izinambuzane ezindizayo ezifana kakhulu nojekamanzi banamuhla. Bekuyizilwane ezinkulu futhi bekujwayele ukukalwa cishe amasentimitha angama-70 ukusuka ekugcineni kuye ekugcineni. Ziye zaziwa njenge izinambuzane ezinkulu kunazo zonke ezake zahlala kule planethi. Ukudla kwabo kwakudla kakhulu futhi babeyizilwane ezidlayo zezilwane ezincane ezinjengezilwane eziphila ezweni nasemanzini nezinambuzane.

Izilwane zeCarboniferous: ama-amphibians

Njengoba sishilo ekuqaleni kwendatshana, ama-amphibian kwakuyiqembu lezilwane ezahlukahluka kakhulu futhi laba nezinguquko. Kuyafaneleka ukusho ukwehla kosayizi womzimba kanye nokwamukelwa kokuphefumula kwamaphaphu. Izilwane zasemanzini zokuqala ukuvela zazinokucushwa komzimba okufana nokwama-salamanders.

Kwakunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezilwane eziphila ezweni nasemanzini. Ama-pederpes ayengama-tetrapod amphibians anomzimba omncane nezitho zomzimba ezimfushane, eziqinile. I-crassigyrinus kwakuyizilwane eziphila ezweni nasemanzini ezinokubukeka okungajwayelekile. Izitho zayo zangaphambili zazingathuthuki kangako ukuze zingakwazi ukuxhasa umzimba wesilwane. Kwakuyi-tetrapod eyayinobude obucishe bube amamitha amabili nesisindo cishe esingu-80 kg.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezilwane zeCarboniferous.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.