UMargaret Salas

Umcwaningi uMargarita Salas

Emkhakheni wesayensi nocwaningo, kube nabesifazane asebethuthuke kakhulu futhi benza igxathu elikhulu. Enye yazo UMargaret Salas. Kanye nomyeni wakhe, waqala ukuthuthukiswa kwesayensi yamangqamuzana eSpain. Izifundo zakhe zigxile kugciwane le-bacterium Phi29 futhi zisivumele ukuthi sazi ukuthi i-DNA isebenza kanjani. Ngenxa yemiyalo yakhe siyazi ukuthi aguqulwa abe amaprotheni nokuthi amaprotheni ahlobene kanjani ukwakha igciwane elisebenzayo.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela yonke iminikelo ye-biography kanye nesayensi kaMargarita Salas.

I-Biography kaMargarita Salas

Ososayensi baseSpain

Ngokunjalo, lo wesifazane uzichaza njengomuntu olula futhi osebenza kanzima. Ungumthandi wemidwebo yesimanje nokubaza. Phakathi kwezimfanelo zakhe ezinhle unesidingo sokwethembeka kanti namathafa awathandayo kakhulu ilabhorethri esemaphandleni ase-Asturian. Uhlala ethi ilabhorethri yilapho ungakhohlwa khona ngomhlaba wonke. Wazalwa ngo-1938 edolobheni elisogwini lwase-Asturian olubizwa ngokuthi iCanero. Mayelana nokuqeqeshwa kwakho, abazali babo bebecaca bha ukuthi izingane zabo kumele zenze iziqu zaseyunivesithi.

Wayengenalo noma yiluphi uhlobo lokubandlululwa maqondana nomfowabo, ngoba babengabazalwane abathathu. UMargarita Salas wangena ekolishi lezindela eneminyaka emithathu futhi waqhubeka waze waqeda isikole. Esikhungweni babenokuqeqeshwa okuphelele kuzo zombili ezabantu nakwezesayensi. Yize ebathanda bobabili, waqala ukujula kwezemfundo yesayensi. Ukhethe ukuya eMadrid ukuyofunda izifundo azikhethayo ezibandakanya i-physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology kanye geology. Zonke lezi zifundo bekufanele ziphasiswe ukuze zithole iziqu ekhemistry.

UMargarita wayengenamdlandla nge-geology futhi wayengadingi ukuthi leli gatsha likwazi ukwenza umuthi. Konke akufundile bekumvumela ukuthi azenze zombili lezi zifundo futhi ekugcineni uthathe isinqumo ngamakhemikhali. Kwakuyisinqumo esihle, ngoba wabona ukuthi wayejabule kangakanani ukuchitha amahora amaningi ebhodini le-organic chemistry. Esinye sezisho zakhe ezaziwa kakhulu ukuthi «Ubizo lwesayensi aluzalwanga, lwenziwa».

UMargarita Salas uhlangane noSevero Ochoa futhi waphakamisa ukuthi amphelezele baye engqungqutheleni ephenywayo. Kule nkulumo ngochwepheshe, esinye isenzo se-biochemistry. Ngonyaka wesine weziqu wahlangana nalowo owayezoba uthando lwempilo yakhe obizwa ngo-Eladio Viñuela. Uyindoda ehlakaniphile, ebukekayo futhi enesithakazelo enezintshisekelo eziningi. Ngaleso sikhathi iziqu zazichaza kakhulu futhi umyeni wakhe u-Eladio wayethanda izakhi zofuzo. Bobabili bathandana ngokushesha kwathi uma beqeda izifundo zabo baba amasoka.

Izifundo nocwaningo

amakamelo we-margarita

U-Eladio waqala ukuphishekela ubudokotela kwezofuzo esikhungweni esifanayo sokucwaninga ngemvelo njengaye. Kodwa-ke, wabona ukuthi uhlobo lofuzo ayelufunda empeleni yilona ayeluthanda kakhulu. Wayenentshisekelo kwizakhi zofuzo eziguqulwe kakhudlwana kwi-biochemistry, i-nucleus yesifundo ibe yamangqamuzana amaningi. Ngenxa yalokho, wamcela ukuba enze lo mqondo ndawonye. Bashada ngo-1963 futhi bakwazi ukufeza le mqondo ngenxa yeminyaka eyishumi eyayihlanganisa ama-pesetas amadala ayi-12000.

Ekupheleni kwawo wonke umsebenzi abawuthuthukisa elabhoratri yakwaSols, banqume ukulandela izeluleko abebebanike zona uSevero Ochoa. Bathuthele elabhorethri ayenayo eNew York futhi bakwazi ukufeza izifiso zabo ngenxa yemifundaze noxhaso lwezezimali abanikwa lona. Kuleli laboratory, wayengakaze azizwe ecwaswa ngokuba ngowesifazane. Zonke izipholi zazinokuqashelwa okubafanele. Ngemuva kweminyaka eminingana kule laboratory banquma ukubuyela eSpain ukuze bakwazi ukuthuthukisa i-biology yamangqamuzana lapha. Babazi ukuthi bangatholakala endaweni lapho intshisekelo yesayensi yayingaphansi bese kungenzeki ukuthi kuphenywe. Kulesi simo, babezobuyela e-United States.

Umbuzo wokuqala obalulekile abawuphakamisile ukukhetha isihloko somsebenzi kulokho abafuna ukuphenya nokuthuthuka. Babengahlosile nje ukuqhubeka nophenyo ababenalo elabhorethri ka-Ochoa, ngoba eSpain babengeke bancintisane nalesi sikhungo. Ngakho-ke, bakhethe i-Phi29 phage, eyayiyindida ngokweqile. Le phage ayilutho ngaphandle kwegciwane elithelela amabhaktheriya. Lolu cwaningo lubonakale lumthakazelisa impela, ngoba yigciwane elalikhuphule igalelo lokuqala kwizakhi zofuzo zamangqamuzana ngawo-XNUMX.

Inhloso yakho kokubili kwakuwukuqaqa zonke izindlela amagciwane azisebenzisela i-morphogenesis yazo. Lokho wukuthi, izinhlayiya zegciwane zakheka kanjani kusuka ezingxenyeni. Siyazi ukuthi izingxenye eziyinhloko zingamaprotheni nezinto ezibonakalayo. Ngaphandle kokuhlangabezana nenjongo, babedinga imali yakwamanye amazwe. Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi iSpain ibingenayo imali yocwaningo, uSevero Ochoa wabatholela imali yokuba ngabacwaningi kuphela elabhorethri okwakufanele bayihlomise kancane kancane.

Igalelo likaMargarita Salas kwezesayensi

ucwaningo nesayensi

ESpain, uMargarita Salas wazizwa ecwaswa ngokuba ngowesifazane. Egumbini lokucwaninga wayengenankinga nabafundi abafundela ubudokotela, kepha kusukela ngaphandle kwelebhu kwakungu-Eladio Viñuela kuphela. Lokhu kwakungafanele neze, njengoba naye ayeneziqu zakhe. Ukuqeda lolu bandlululo, uphenyo lwaqala ngeminyaka yama-XNUMX ngegciwane lengulube i-African swine fever. Ucwaningo lwe-Phi29 lwalungaphansi kokuqondisa kukaMargarita kuphela. Ngale ndlela ukwazile ukukhombisa ukuthi ubekwazi ukwenza ucwaningo eyedwa ngaphandle kwesidingo se-Eladio futhi waba ngusosayensi onegama lakhe hhayi nje "unkosikazi ka".

Kwakwaziwa ukuthi yigciwane futhi alizange lidlale kumuntu kepha lithelela amagciwane I-Bacillus subtilis. Into yokuqala engatholwa sibonga uMargarita Salas ukuthi i-DNA ineprotheni ebalulekile enamathiselwe emaphethelweni ayo ukuze iqale ukuyiphinda. Kwakungokokuqala ukuthi iprotheni elinjalo litholakale liboshwe ku-DNA yomuntu ophilayo. Konke lokhu bekuwukutholakala kwendlela entsha yokuziphindaphinda kwezinto zofuzo. Ngenxa yalokhu okutholakele, kungenzeka ukusebenzisa imodeli ukuhlaziya amanye amagciwane nawo analolu hlobo lweprotheyini. Wonke lawa mavidiyo aphathwa kabi kakhulu, ngakho-ke lokhu kusengaphambili bekufanele impela.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoMargarita Salas nange-biography yakhe.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.