Amagagasi adonsela phansi

amagagasi adonsela phansi

Siyazi ukuthi umkhakha we-physics unezici eziningi ezenza kube nzima kubantu abaningi ukuziqonda. Enye yalezi zici ingukuthi amagagasi adonsela phansi. La magagasi abikezelwa ngusosayensi Albert Einstein futhi batholwa eminyakeni eyikhulu emva kokubikezela kwabo. Zimelela intuthuko yesayensi kumcabango ka-Einstein wokuhlobana.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngamagagasi adonsela phansi, izici zawo nokubaluleka kwawo.

Ayini amagagasi adonsela phansi

amandla adonsela phansi i-physics

Sikhuluma ngokumelelwa kokuphazamiseka esikhaleni sesikhathi okwenziwa ngokuba khona komzimba omkhulu osheshisiwe okhiqiza ukunwetshwa kwamandla kuzo zonke izinhlangothi ngejubane lokukhanya. Isimo samaza adonsela phansi sivumela isikhathi sesikhala ukuthi sinwebe ngaphandle kokukwazi ukubuyela esimeni saso sokuqala. Iphinde idale ukuphazamiseka okuncane okungabonakala kuphela kumalabhorethri esayensi athuthukile. Konke ukuphazamiseka kwamandla adonsela phansi kuyakwazi ukusabalalisa ngejubane lokukhanya.

Imvamisa zikhiqizwa phakathi kwezindikimba zesikhala ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ezikhiqiza ukwanda kwamandla ethuthwa kuzo zonke izinhlangothi. Kuyisimo esidala ukuthi isikhathi sesikhala sandiswe ngendlela yokuthi sikwazi ukubuyela esimeni saso sokuqala. Ukutholakala kwamagagasi adonsela phansi kube nomthelela obaluleke kakhulu ekutadisheni isikhala ngamagagasi aso. Ngenxa yalokhu, kungaphakanyiswa amanye amamodeli ukuqonda ukuqonda kwesikhala nazo zonke izici zaso.

Ukutholwa

amandla adonsela phansi

Yize okunye kokucabanga kokugcina kuka-Albert Einstein emcabangweni wakhe wokuhlobana kwakuyincazelo yamaza adonsela phansi, atholwa ngemuva kwekhulu leminyaka. Ngakho-ke, ukuba khona kwala magagasi adonsela phansi u-Einstein akuvezile kungafakazelwa. Ngokwalo sosayensi, ukuba khona kwalolu hlobo lwamagagasi kwaqhamuka kokutholakala kwezibalo okwakusho ukuthi ayikho into noma isiginali engashesha kunokukhanya.

Kakade sekwedlule ikhulu leminyaka ku-2014, i-BICEP2 Observatory yamemezela ukutholakala kanye namathala amaza adonsela phansi akhiqizwa ngenkathi kunwetshwa indawo yonke Big Bang. Ngokushesha nje ngemuva kokuba lezi zindaba zingaphikwa lapho sibona ukuthi lokhu bekungelona iqiniso.

Ngemuva konyaka ososayensi bokuhlolwa kwe-LIGO bakwazi ukuthola la magagasi. Ngale ndlela, babeqinisekisa ukuthi ababekhona bayomemezela izindaba. Ngakho-ke, Yize ukutholakala kwakungu-2015, bakumemezela ngo-2016.

Izici eziyinhloko kanye nemvelaphi yamagagasi adonsela phansi

isikhathi sesikhala

Sizobona ukuthi yiziphi izici ezimelele kakhulu ezenza amagagasi adonsela phansi abe omunye wezinto ezibaluleke kakhulu emkhakheni we-physics eminyakeni yamuva. Lokhu ukuphazamiseka okuguqula ubukhulu besikhathi sesikhala ngendlela yokuthi sikwazi ukusikhulisa ngaphandle kokuyivumela ukuba ibuyele esimeni sayo sokuqala. Isici esiyinhloko ukuthi bayakwazi ukusabalalisa ngejubane lokukhanya nakuzo zonke izinkomba. Angamagagasi ajikelezayo futhi angahlukaniswa. Lokhu kusho ukuthi futhi inomsebenzi kazibuthe.

La magagasi angathutha amandla ngejubane elikhulu nasezindaweni ezikude kakhulu. Mhlawumbe okunye ukungabaza okuphakanyiswe ngamagagasi adonsela phansi ukuthi imvelaphi yawo ayikwazi ukunqunywa ngokuphelele. Zingavela kumafrikhwensi ahlukahlukene ngokuya ngamandla wawo ngamunye.

Yize kungacaci ngokuphelele, kunososayensi abaningi abazama ukuthola ukuthi amaza adonsela phansi aqala kanjani. Ake sibone ukuthi yiziphi izimo ezingakheka kuzo:

  • Lapho izidumbu ezimbili noma ngaphezulu kakhulu zesikhala esikhulu zixhumana zodwa. Lezi zigaxa kumele zibe zinkulu ukuze amandla adonsela phansi asebenze.
  • Umkhiqizo wemizila yezimbobo ezimbili ezimnyama.
  • Zingakhiwa ngokushayisana kwemithala emibili. Ngokusobala, lokhu kuyinto engenzeki nsuku zonke
  • Zingavela lapho ukuzungeza kwama-neutron amabili kuhlangana.

Ukuthola nokubaluleka

Manje ake sihlaziye kafushane ukuthi ososayensi be-LIGO bakwazi kanjani ukukhomba lezi zinhlobo zamagagasi. Siyazi ukuthi bakhiqiza ukuphazamiseka kosayizi omncane kakhulu nokuthi bangatholakala kuphela ngamadivayisi athuthukile kwezobuchwepheshe. Futhi kufanele ngikhumbule ukuthi lawa madivayisi abucayi kakhulu. Ziyaziwa ngegama lama-interferometer. Akhiwe ngohlelo lwemigudu eqhele ngamakhilomitha amaningana futhi ahlelwe ngendlela eyi-L. Ama-Lasers adlula kule mihubhe engamakhilomitha agxuma ezibukweni futhi aphazamise lapho ewela. Lapho isihlilingi sokuvusa amadlingozi senzeka kungatholwa ngokuphelele yi-deformation ku-space-time. Ukwakheka okuzinzile kwenzeka phakathi kwezibuko ezitholakala kwi-interferometer.

Amanye amathuluzi angathola amagagasi adonsela phansi yizibonakude zomsakazo. Izibonakude zomsakazo ezinjalo zingalinganisa ukukhanya kusuka kuma-pulsars. Ukubaluleka kokuthola lezi zinhlobo zamagagasi yilokho okuvumela abantu ukuthi bahlole kangcono indawo yonke. Futhi kungenxa yala magagasi ukuthi imisindo edlondlobala esikhaleni sesikhathi ingazwakala kahle. Ukutholakala kwalawa magagasi kwenze kwaba nokwenzeka ukuqonda ukuthi indawo yonke ingakhubazeka futhi konke ukukhubazeka kukhule futhi kuhlangane endaweni yonke nefomu lokuzulazula.

Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi ukuze kudaleke amagagasi adonsela phansi, izinqubo ezinobudlova njengokushayisana kwezimbobo ezimnyama kufanele zenziwe. Kungenxa yocwaningo lwala magagasi lapho ulwazi lungatholakala ukuthi le micimbi kanye nezinhlekelele ezenzeka endaweni yonke. Zonke izenzakalo zingasiza ukuqonda nokuchaza imithetho eminingi eyisisekelo emkhakheni we-physics. Ngenxa yalokhu, inani elikhulu lemininingwane linganikezwa ngesikhala, imvelaphi yaso nokuthi izinkanyezi zikhubazeka noma zinyamalale kanjani. Lonke lolu lwazi lutholakala ukuze ufunde kabanzi ngemigodi emnyama. Isibonelo samagagasi adonsela phansi Itholakala ekuqhumeni kwenkanyezi, ukushayisana kwama-meteorite amabili noma lapho kwakhiwa izimbobo ezimnyama. Ingatholakala futhi ekuqhumeni kwe-supernova.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngamaza adonsela phansi kanye nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.