Amachibi aseSpain

Amachibi aseSpain

Isomiso singesinye sezimo esihlasele kakhulu iSpain isikhathi eside. Isimo sezulu sethu senza sibe nemvula ephansi ekupheleni konyaka futhi sigxile kakhulu ebusika. Ngokuguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nokwanda kwamazinga okushisa aphakathi komhlaba, siyaqaphela ukuthi imijikelezo yesomiso iye yaqina futhi yanda. Ngakho-ke, amadamu aseSpain badlala indima ebalulekile enanini lamanzi elikhona kokubili ukusetshenziswa komuntu kanye neminye imisebenzi yezomnotho.

Sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngamachibi aseSpain nezimpawu zawo eziyinhloko.

Ukwakhiwa kwamadamu amasha eSpain

Ukwakhiwa kwamadamu eSpain kuyinto esukela ezikhathini zasendulo. Ngenkathi umuntu esungulwa emiphakathini eyahlukene, kwabonakala isidingo sokugcina amanzi. Njengoba phambilini ubuchwepheshe bebungathuthukile njenganamuhla, i-morphology yendawo kwakumele isetshenziswe kakhulu. Kulapha lapho i-geology ibamba iqhaza elibalulekile ekwakheni amadamu. Ngokuya ngohlobo lwendawo nedwala elivelele, kungakhiwa amadamu osayizi abehlukene. Isimo sendawo sendawo nayo bekufanele sicatshangelwe. Izifundo zamanzi nokugeleza okusetshenziswe yilowo nalowo njengokudla ukugcwalisa amadamu nokugcina amanzi atholakalayo.

Kwaze kwaba ngo-1970 lapho kwenziwa khona uhlu lokuqala lwamadamu aseSpain. Wenziwa yiKomidi Likazwelonke LaseSpain Lamadamu Amakhulu (i-SPANCOLD) futhi wethulwa kwi-X International Congress yamadamu amakhulu, ihlelwe yiKhomishini Yomhlaba Wonke Yamadamu Amakhulu (ICOLD) eMontreal. Imininingwane equkethwe kuhlu lwezinto yenza kube lula ukuvuselela ukuvela kwenani lamadamu eSpain phakathi nekhulu lama-XNUMX. Kuyasiza nokwazi inani lamanzi esikwazi ukuwagcina ukuze siwasebenzise kamuva.

Imininingwane eminingi iqoqiwe ekhombisa ukuthi ngesikhathi Eminyakeni engama-25 edlule, iSpain yakhe intela yokuxhashazwa ngaphezu kwamadamu angama-200. Ngesikhathi sokuvela kwaleli khulu leminyaka elidlule kube lula ukuhlaziya umkhuba ocacile kakhulu ekuguqukeni kokwakhiwa kwamadamu. Ingxenye yokuqala yekhulu lama-4 ngifuna ukubonakaliswa ngokuthunyelwa minyaka yonke kwamadamu amane. Yilapho inguquko yaqala khona ekwakhiweni kwengqalasizinda ekwazi ukugcina amanzi nokuguqula umjikelezo wamanzi.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinengxenye yesibili yekhulu lamashumi amabili lapho kukhona intuthuko ebonakalayo ezweni lethu. Futhi ukuthi lesi sigamu sesibili bekunguquko ephelele yamachibi aseSpain. Ku-oda lamadamu angama-20 ngonyaka aqala ukusebenza. Ngenkathi singena ngekhulu lama-XNUMX, umkhuba okhulayo nawo waqala ukukhulisa inani lamadamu.

Ukuqoqwa kwamadamu aseSpain

NguNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo Nezindaba Zasemakhaya okuyimanje ophethe ukugcina izinhlu zamadamu aseSpain zisesikhathini. Kule nkonzo singathola ingosi yewebhu lapho sinazo zonke izici eziyinhloko nendawo yamachibi amakhulu eSpain. Ngenxa yalolu lwazi singathola idatha ku- ukusatshalaliswa kwamadamu ngokuya ngobunjalo bawo, ukuphakama kwawo, ukuvela kwenani lamachibi aseSpain, umthamo welinye nelinye, Njll

Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi idatha ekhona maqondana nenani lamachibi aseSpain ikhuphuke kakhulu emashumini eminyaka amuva nje. Abantu abaningi bayazibuza ukuthi kungani kungasakhiwa amaxhaphozi uma isomiso sifuna ukwakhiwa kwengqalasizinda entsha yokugcina amanzi.

Namuhla akukho ukukhuluma ngamadamu noma amaxhaphozi, kepha kunalokho ukwakhiwa kwemisebenzi yokulawula kudaliwe. ISpain Kubhekwe njengombuso wezwe emachibini anenqwaba ye-1.200. Lokhu kubeka iSpain njengomholi eYurophu. Kodwa-ke, iSpain okwamanje ibhekene nesikhathi lapho kungakhiwa izingqalasizinda ezintsha zalolu hlobo. Futhi ukuthi imithethonqubo yamanzi ebikhishwe eBrussels futhi ebisebenza kusukela ekuqaleni kwaleli khulu leminyaka, ibheja ekusakazeni amanzi emanzini. Kukhona nengcindezi kwezemvelo, ubunzima bezomnotho kanye nokuchithwa kohlelo lukazwelonke lwamanzi. Sonke lesi simo sidale ukuthi imisebenzi yomphakathi ihloselwe eminye imisebenzi engeyona eyokwakhiwa kwamachibi amasha eSpain.

Kubeka nokubeka phambili imisebenzi ukuthi qinisekisa ukuthi iziteshi azivezi izikhukhula eziningi. Njengoba imvula eSpain yenzeka ngendlela enamandla ezindaweni eziningi kuyingozi kuCarlos ukuqhuba imifula ngaphandle kokwelashwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi. Ngakho-ke, udaba olusemqoka namuhla wukukhiphela ngaphandle imisebenzi ethinta imifula namathafa akwazi ukugcina amanzi ngokungeyena. Nakhu ukuthi umsebenzi onzima kakhulu utholakala kanjani ekulawuleni kunokufaka isitsha esisha ekuphathweni kwamanzi kazwelonke.

Inkinga yokwakhiwa kwamachibi aseSpain

Amadamu ayaziwa ukuthi enza lula kakhulu ukuphathwa kwemithombo yamanzi. Bavumela futhi ukuthola amandla kagesi ophehlwa ngamanzi nokwandisa izindawo zokunisela esitsheni, okusiza ekulawuleni izikhukhula ezigcina zigcinekile. Noma kunjalo, kunengozi yokubeka phansi amadamu. Lokhu ku-oda akulutho ngaphandle kokuqongelelwa kwezidalwa ngendlela engokwemvelo futhi okugcizelelwa yimvula enamandla.

Thola izinga lokusekelwa kwamachibi kubalulekile ukukwazi nokubala ngokunembile izindawo zokugcina amanzi ezibakhona ezweni lonke. Isivinini nezinga lapho le nqubo yenzeka khona emigodini yamachibi kuncike esimweni sezulu sesifunda ngasinye. Kuya ngesakhiwo sejografi, isimo somhlaba, ukusetshenziswa kwezolimo, inani lesembozo semifino kanye ne-lithology yedamu uqobo. Zonke lezi zinto eziguqukayo yilezo ezinquma inani lezidleke ezisengozini yokuwa ezithuthwayo ngemuva kokukhukhulwa futhi zigcine zanqwabelana ngaphakathi echibini.

Ukuqoqwa okwalandela kwalezi zidalwa kunciphisa amandla echibi lokugcina amanzi. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, le mithetho yokusebenza kwezidaka iyadingeka ukugcina isitsha sisebenziseka.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalo lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngamachibi aseSpain.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.