U-Alan Turing

U-Alan Turing

Sibhekene namadoda omlando amake ngaphambi nangemva kwesayensi siyathola U-Alan Turing. Uyisazi sezibalo saseBrithani, isazi sekhompiyutha, isazi sefilosofi noma, isazi sezinto eziphilayo, i-marathoner, i-logician kanye nomgijimi webanga elide owaphuphunyelwa isisu noma wenza intuthuko eminingi kusayensi ngesikhathi sakhe. Wazalwa ngo-1912 futhi washona ngo-1954. Wayethathwa njengomunye woFata besayensi yamakhompiyutha futhi owayengumanduleli wamakhompiyutha anamuhla. Ngenxa yeminikelo yabo, kungenzeka ukuthonya ukwenziwa ngokusemthethweni kwama-algorithm ahlukahlukene kanye nemiqondo yokubalwa, lapho sithola khona umshini weTuring.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela yonke i-biography nokuxhashazwa kuka-Alan Turing.

Umlando ka-Alan Turing

alan ovusa usosayensi

Njengoba bekulindelekile, endulo kwakukhona imininingwane eminingi kakhulu ngomkhakha, ukuze umuntu akwazi ukugxila emagatsheni ahlukahlukene esayensi. Kulokhu, sibonile ukuthi lo sosayensi uzinikele emagatsheni amaningi esayensi, ngakho-ke angabamba iqhaza ezicini ezahlukene. U-Alan Turing wayalwa ukuba ahole imishini yokuya ukukwazi ukucacisa imilayezo yamaNazi eyayifihliwe ngesikhathi seWWII. Kusukela esemncane wanikeza izimpendulo ezinhle ezinkingeni ezahlukahlukene kwizibalo futhi wamukelwa njengomfundi eKing's College e-University of Cambridge, esinye sezikhungo zesayensi ezihlonishwa kakhulu emhlabeni.

Kulesi sikhungo wazizwa ekhululekile futhi wazibona yena nabanye abantu abambalwa njengongqingili. Ngalesi sikhathi lokhu kwakungekho emthethweni eBrithani, ngakho-ke ababaningi abantu ababengazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sakhe saseyunivesithi, okokuqala njengomfundi nanjengothisha, wahlobana nabanye ososayensi besikhathi sakhe.

Ngo-1936 washicilela i-athikili okwatholakala ukuthi ingumsuka we-computing theory. A uchaze ukuthi yini efundekayo nokuthi yini engabalwa. Lokho kusho ukuthi, okubaliwe bekuyikho konke okungaxazululwa nge-algorithm. I-Algorithm ichazwa njengeqoqo lemiyalo enesiphetho okuthi, ngezinyathelo ezahlukahlukene ngokulandelana, kuholele esixazululweni senkinga. Okunye okungazange kuhlangabezane nale ncazelo bekuyimisebenzi engabalwa. Ukwazile ukukhombisa ukuthi kunezinkinga ezingenaso isixazululo, okungukuthi, babengenaso isixazululo se-algorithmic.

Ukuze unikeze umqondo wakho konke lokhu, futhi wanikeza umshini odumile onegama lakhe. Kuyithuluzi lokucabanga elingenza noma yikuphi ukusebenza kwezibalo okungaxazululeka ngokusebenzisa i-algorithm. Uma kungenzeka ukuthi icutshungulwe futhi iguqulwe, kungaba yikhompyutha. Noma kunjalo, U-Alan Turing akazange enze le phrojekthi, ukungakwazi ukubala izindlela zobuchwepheshe ezidingekayo.

Intuthuko kwezesayensi

usosayensi othuthukile

Okunye okwenziwe ngu-Alan Turing ukubikezela ukwehluleka okuthinta amakhompyutha ethu namuhla. Ngaphambi kokuba kube khona amakhompiyutha, lo sosayensi akagcinanga nje ngokubheka ukusebenza kwakhe, kodwa futhi futhi wabikezela ukwehluleka kwesikhathi esizayo. Ngale ndlela, ngenkathi ehlela umshini wakhe, wayichaza inkinga yokumisa, aqinisekise ukuthi ayikho i-algorithm engathola ukuthi ngabe umsebenzi uzoqalwa noma cha.

Ngenxa yale miqondo, ukwazile ukubikezela ukuthi amakhompyutha azoma futhi ahluke ngokuzayo. Ngamanye amagama, lapho ikhompuyutha iwela kuluphu olungenamkhawulo, kufanele silungiselele ukuqala kabusha ukuze sixazulule inkinga. Futhi kucatshangwa ukuthi kunezinkinga ezingabalwa, pnoma-ke ayikho i-algorithm enganikeza isisombululo kuyo.

U-Alan Turing wephula amakhodi

ukunqoba amaNazi

Uhulumeni waseBrithani wabiza u-Alan Turing ngo-1938 ukuthi ahole iqembu esikhungweni sokubhala ngezwe lakhe. Wayenomthwalo wemfanelo nganginomsebenzi omkhulu kaCamón wokuhlaziya imiyalezo evela kumishini ye-Enigma. Le mishini yayiphethe ukukwazi ukudlulisa ama-oda anekhodi emikhunjini engaphansi komhlaba yamaNazi eyayisebenza e-Atlantic Ocean.

Umnikelo weqembu elalihola uTuring kwakubalulekile ukuthi ngibe nomphumela wempi esivuna izivumelwano. Futhi ukuthi bangakuthola ngobuhlakani babo nangokwakhiwa kwemishini yokuqala yeBombe. Lawa ngamadivayisi we-electromechanical akhiwe kuphela ukuze akwazi ukuphula amakhodi we-Enigma.

Emva kwakho konke lokhu kungqubuzana, iqiniso lokukwakha kabusha umshini onamakhono afanayo nobuchopho bomuntu lakhuliswa. Lokhu kumayelana nephrojekthi eyaziwa ngokuthi yimishini enobuchopho. Ifuna ukwakha ikhompyutha yedijithali edijithali ukuze ikwazi ukuxazulula izinhloso ezingaphezu kweyodwa futhi ikwazi ukugcina uhlelo kwimemori yayo. Enye yezinkinga ezinkulu u-Alan Turing ayenazo ngesikhathi esaphila ukuthi bamnika imithi "yokwelapha" ubungqingili bakhe. Lo muthi wanikezwa yijaji futhi wawuthinta kabi impilo yakhe.

Ngo-1947 wakwazi ukwenza ikhompyutha entsha eyayisekelwe kwikhompyutha ekwazi ukugcina uhlelo enkumbulweni yalo eyinhloko, kodwa yayinamandla amaningi kakhulu kunomshini owandulelayo.

Intelligence yokufakelwa

Ngaleso sikhathi, u-Alan wayenesithakazelo esikhulu ekuhlakanipheni okwenziwe. Lokho kusho ukuthi, Wayethatheka yindlela imisebenzi yobuchopho bomuntu eyayingalingiswa ngayo. Umnikelo wakhe omuhle kulo mkhakha waphinde waba owomkhakha wezifundo. Ocwaningweni lwabo basungule izisekelo ezahlukahlukene zobuhlakani bokufakelwa baphakamisa nohlobo lokuhlola ukuthola ukuthi umshini uhlakaniphile noma cha.

Ngemuva kwesigameko nesithandwa sakhe, u-Alan Turing waboshelwa ubungqingili futhi walahlwa yicala, yize ijaji lamnikeza ithuba lokuthola ukwelashwa ngama-hormone ukuze elapheke. Konke lokhu kwenzeka ngo-1952. Lo muthi wayithinta kabi impilo yakhe futhi wamshiya ekucindezelekeni okwakuthi kumholele ekuzibulaleni. Njengoba ubona, ukungcola kwangaphambilini bekungafani nalokhu manje futhi lo sosayensi wayenganikela kakhulu ukwamukela ubungqingili.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngo-Alan Turing nentuthuko yakhe kwezesayensi.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.