Zakhiwa kanjani izintaba

Zakhiwa kanjani izintaba kule planethi?

Intaba yaziwa njengokuphakama kwemvelo kwezwe futhi iwumkhiqizo wamandla e-tectonic, ngokuvamile engaphezu kwamamitha angu-700 ngaphezu kwesisekelo sayo. Lezi zindawo eziphakeme zezwe ngokuvamile ziqoqwa zibe amagquma noma izintaba, futhi zingaba zifushane njengamamayela ambalwa ubude. Kusukela ekuqaleni kwesintu uhlale ezibuza Zakhiwa kanjani izintaba.

Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, sizonikezela lesi sihloko ukuze sikutshele ukuthi izintaba zakhiwe kanjani, izici zazo kanye nezinqubo ze-geological.

iyini intaba

ukungqubuzana kwepuleti

Izintaba ziye zathatha ukunaka komuntu kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo, ngokuvamile ezihlotshaniswa ngokwamasiko nokuphakama, ukusondela kuNkulunkulu (izulu), noma njengesingathekiso somzamo oqhubekayo wokuthola umbono omkhulu noma ongcono. Ngempela, ukuqwala izintaba kuwumsebenzi onzima ngokomzimba obaluleke kakhulu ekucabangeni kwethu iphesenti elaziwayo leplanethi yethu.

Ziningi izindlela zokuhlukanisa izintaba. Isibonelo, kuye ngobude ingahlukaniswa ibe (kusuka kwencane kakhulu kuye kwenkulu): amagquma nezintaba. Ngokunjalo, zingahlukaniswa ngokwemvelaphi yazo njenge: amaphutha entabamlilo, ukugoqa noma ukugoqa.

Okokugcina, amaqoqo ezintaba angahlukaniswa ngokuma kwawo okuhlanganayo: uma ehlangene ngobude, sizibiza ngokuthi izintaba; uma ehlangene ngendlela ehlangene noma eyindilinga, siyibiza ngokuthi ama-massifs. Izintaba zimboza ingxenye enkulu yomhlaba: Amaphesenti angama-53 e-Asia, angama-25% aseYurophu, ama-17% e-Australia kanye nama-3% e-Afrika, amaphesenti angama-24 esewonke. Njengoba cishe i-10% labantu emhlabeni lihlala ezindaweni ezinezintaba, wonke amanzi omfula akha phezulu kwezintaba.

Zakhiwa kanjani izintaba

Zakhiwa kanjani izintaba

Ukwakheka kwezintaba, okwaziwa ngokuthi i-orogeny, kamuva kuthonywa izici zangaphandle ezifana nokuguguleka noma ukunyakaza kwe-tectonic. Izintaba zivela ekuwohlokeni koqweqwe lomhlaba, imvamisa lapho kuhlangana khona amapuleti amabili e-tectonic, okuthi, lapho esebenzisa amandla komunye nomunye, yenza ukuthi i-lithosphere igoqe, ngomthambo owodwa owehla omunye ukhuphuke, okwenza uhleko lwamazinga ahlukahlukene okuphakama

Kwezinye izimo, le nqubo yomthelela ibangela ukuba ungqimba lushone phansi, oluncibilikiswa ukushisa lube i-magma, ebese ikhuphukela phezulu yakhe intaba-mlilo.

Ukwenza kube lula, sizochaza ukuthi izintaba zenziwa kanjani ngokuhlolwa. Kulesi sivivinyo, sizochaza ukuthi izintaba zakhiwe kanjani ngendlela elula. Ukuze kwenzeke, sidinga nje: Ipulasitiki yemibala ehlukene, izincwadi ezimbalwa kanye nephinikhodi.

Okokuqala, ukuze siqonde ukuthi izintaba zakhiwa kanjani, sizosebenzisa ukulingisa okulula kwezingqimba zomhlaba woMhlaba. Kulokhu sizosebenzisa i-plasticine enemibala. Esibonelweni sethu, sikhethe okuluhlaza, okunsundu, nokusawolintshi.

I-plasticine eluhlaza ilingisa uqweqwe lwezwekazi loMhlaba. Eqinisweni, lolu qweqwe luwugqinsi olungamakhilomitha angama-35. Ukube i-crust ayizange yakheke, uMhlaba ngabe umbozwe ngokuphelele ulwandle lomhlaba wonke.

I-plasticine ensundu ihambisana ne-lithosphere, ungqimba olungaphandle lwendilinga yasemhlabeni. Ukujula kwayo kushintshashintsha phakathi kwamakhilomitha ayi-10 no-50. Ukunyakaza kwalolu ungqimba yilokho kwamapuleti e-tectonic amachopho awo kulapho kwakheka khona izenzakalo ze-geological.

Ekugcineni, ubumba olusawolintshi yi-asthenosphere yethu, etholakala ngaphansi kwe-lithosphere futhi ingaphezulu kwengubo. Lesi singqimba singaphansi kwengcindezi nokushisa okukhulu kangangokuthi siziphatha ngokwepulasitiki, okuvumela ukuhamba kwe-lithosphere.

izingxenye zentaba

izintaba ezinkulu emhlabeni

Izintaba zivame ukwakhiwa:

  • Phansi konyawo noma ukwakheka kwesisekelo, ngokuvamile phansi.
  • Isiqongo, isiqongo noma i-cusp. Ingxenye engenhla neyokugcina, ekugcineni kwegquma, ifinyelela ekuphakameni okuphezulu kakhulu ngangokunokwenzeka.
  • igquma noma isiketi. Joyina izingxenye ezingezansi nezingaphezulu zomthambeko.
  • Ingxenye yomthambeko phakathi kweziqongo ezimbili (izintaba ezimbili) ezakha ukucindezeleka okuncane noma ukucindezeleka.

Isimo sezulu nohlaza

Isimo sezulu sezintaba ngokuvamile sincike ezintweni ezimbili: i-latitude yakho kanye nokuphakama kwentaba. Izinga lokushisa nomfutho womoya kuhlala kuphansi ezindaweni eziphakeme, ngokuvamile ku-5 °C ngekhilomitha lokuphakama.

Kwenzeka okufanayo nangemvula, evame kakhulu ezindaweni eziphakeme, ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi izindawo ezimanzi zizotholakala eziqongweni zezintaba kunasemathafeni, ikakhulukazi lapho kuzalwa khona imifula emikhulu. Uma uqhubeka nokukhuphuka, umswakama namanzi kuzophenduka iqhwa futhi ekugcineni kube yiqhwa.

Uhlaza lwasentabeni luncike kakhulu esimweni sezulu nendawo yentaba. Kodwa ngokuvamile kwenzeka kancane kancane njengoba ukhuphuka ukhuphuka. Ngakho-ke, ezitezi eziphansi, eduze nonyawo lwentaba, amathafa azungezile noma amahlathi asezintabeni anothile ngohlaza, anamahlathi aminyene, futhi made.

Kodwa njengoba ukhuphuka, izinhlobo ezimelana kakhulu ziyathatha, zisebenzisa izindawo zokugcina amanzi kanye nezimvula eziningi. Ngenhla kwezindawo ezinezinkuni, ukuntuleka komoyampilo kuzwakala futhi izimila zincishiswa zibe izimfunda ezinezihlahla notshani obuncane. Ngenxa yalokho, iziqongo zezintaba zivame ukoma, ikakhulukazi lezo ezimbozwe iqhwa neqhwa.

Izintaba ezinhlanu eziphakeme kakhulu

Izintaba ezinhlanu ezinde kakhulu emhlabeni yilezi:

  • I-Mount Everest. Njengoba iphakeme ngamamitha angu-8.846 XNUMX, iyintaba ephakeme kunazo zonke emhlabeni, esiqongweni sezintaba zaseHimalaya.
  • K2 izintaba. Enye yezintaba okunzima kakhulu ukuziqwala emhlabeni, ngamamitha ayi-8611 ngaphezu kwezinga lolwandle. Iphakathi kweChina nePakistan.
  • Kachenjunga. Itholakala phakathi kweNdiya neNepal, endaweni ephakeme ngamamitha angama-8598. Igama layo lihunyushwa ngokuthi "ingcebo emihlanu phakathi kweqhwa."
  • I-Aconcagua. Itholakala e-Andes yase-Argentina esifundazweni saseMendoza, le ntaba iphakama ibe amamitha angu-6.962 futhi iyisiqongo esiphakeme kunazo zonke emazweni aseMelika.
  • I-Snowy Ojos del Salado. Kuyi-stratovolcano, ingxenye yezintaba ze-Andes, esemngceleni ophakathi kweChile ne-Argentina. Yintaba-mlilo ephakeme kunazo zonke emhlabeni enobude obungamamitha angu-6891,3.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nokuthi izintaba zakhiwe kanjani nezici zazo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.