I-Andromeda Galaxy

ukuqoqwa kwezinkanyezi

I-Andromeda ingumthala owakhiwa yizinhlelo zezinkanyezi, uthuli, negesi, konke okuthinta amandla adonsela phansi. Itholakala eminyakeni eyizigidi ezi-2,5 zokukhanya ukusuka eMhlabeni futhi ukuphela komzimba wasezulwini obonakala ngeso lenyama okungewona oweMilky Way. Irekhodi lokuqala lomthala lihlehlela emuva ku-961, lapho isazi sezinkanyezi sasePheresiya u-Al-Sufi esichaza njengeqoqo elincane lamafu enkanyezini i-Andromeda. Kungenzeka, abanye abantu basendulo nabo bakwazi ukuyibona.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi Umthala we-Andromeda, izici zayo nokubaluleka kwayo.

Izici eziyinhloko

iqoqo lezinkanyezi

I-Andromeda ingumthala ovuthayo omile ngendlela efanayo noMilky Way wethu. Yakhelwe njenge-disc eyisicaba ene-protrusion nezingalo eziningana zokuvunda maphakathi. Akuyona yonke imithala enalo mklamo. UHubble wabona amakhulu awo. Emdwebeni wabo wokudweba owaziwayo noma ukulandelana kweHubble okusasetshenziswa nanamuhla, kuhlukaniswe ngama-ellipticals (E), ama-lenticulars (L), kanye nemiklamo (S).

Ngokulandelayo, imithala evunguza ihlukaniswe yaba ngamaqembu amabili, lawo anemigoqo emaphakathi nalawo angenayo imigoqo emaphakathi. Ukuvumelana okukhona manje ukuthi okwethu IMilky Way iyi-galaxy evinjelwe evinjelwe i-Sb. Yize singenakuyibona ngaphandle, i-Andromeda ingumthala ovulekile olula noma ongavinjelwe ovulekile, futhi singacishe siwubone usuka lapha.

Ake sibone izici ezibaluleke kakhulu ze-Andromeda:

  • Inomgogodla ombaxambili
  • Ubukhulu bayo buqhathaniswa nobukaMilky Way. I-Andromeda inkudlwana ngosayizi, kepha iMilky Way inesisindo esikhulu futhi inkulu kakhulu emnyama.
  • Kunemithala eminingana yesathelayithi e-Andromeda ehlangana ngamandla adonsela phansi: imithala ye-elliptical dwarf: M32 neM110 nomthala omncane ovunguza uM33.
  • Ububanzi bayo buyiminyaka yokukhanya eyi-220.000.
  • Icwebezela ngokuphindwe kabili kuneMilky Way futhi inezinkanyezi eziyizigidi eziyinkulungwane.
  • Cishe u-3% wamandla akhishwa yi-Andromeda usesifundeni seso lefoni, kanti eMilky Way leli phesenti lingu-50%. Imvamisa leli xabiso lihlobene nesilinganiso sokwakheka kwezinkanyezi, ngakho-ke liphezulu eMilky Way futhi liphansi e-Andromeda.

Ungawubona kanjani ngeso lengqondo umthala we-Andromeda

izinkanyezi ze-andromeda galaxy

Ikhathalogu iMessier uhlu lwezindikimba zasezulwini eziyi-110 ezisukela kowe-1774, eziqamba igama lomthala obonakalayo we-Andromeda kumlaza wegama elifanayo noM31. Khumbula lawa magama lapho usesha imithala ebalazweni lesibhakabhaka, njengoba lisetshenziswa ezinhlelweni eziningi zezinkanyezi kumakhompyutha nakumakhalekhukhwini.

Ukubona ngeso lengqondo i-Andromeda, kulula ukuthola i-constellation Cassiopeia kuqala, enesimo esivelele kakhulu sohlamvu W noma M, kuya ngokuthi uyibuka kanjani. ICassiopeia kulula ukuyibona esibhakabhakeni, kanti i-Andromeda Galaxy ilele phakathi kwayo nomlaza i-Andromeda. Khumbula ukuthi ukuze ubone iMilky Way ngamehlo, isibhakabhaka kufanele sibe mnyama kakhulu futhi azikho izibani zokufakelwa eduzane. Kodwa-ke, nasebusuku obucwathile, iMilky Way ingabonakala emadolobheni anabantu abaningi, kepha okungenani usizo lwezibonakude luyadingeka. Kulezi zimo, kuzovela i-oval encane emhlophe endaweni ekhonjisiwe.

Usebenzisa isibonakude ungakwazi ukuhlukanisa imininingwane eminingi ngomthala futhi ungathola nemithala yawo emibili emincane ehambisana nayo.

Isikhathi esihle sonyaka sokuyibona yile:

  • INyakatho Nenkabazwe: Yize ukubonakala kuphansi unyaka wonke, izinyanga ezihamba phambili ngu-Agasti noSepthemba.
  • Iningizimu yezwe: phakathi kuka-Okthoba noDisemba.
  • Ekugcineni, kunconywa ukugcina ngesikhathi inyanga entsha, gcina isibhakabhaka simnyama kakhulu futhi ugqoke izingubo ezifanele zesizini.

Isakhiwo nomsuka womthala i-Andromeda

Umthala we-andromeda

Isakhiwo se-Andromeda ngokuyisisekelo siyefana naleyo yonke imithala evunguza:

  • I-nucleus ye-athomu enembobo emnyama emnyama ngaphakathi.
  • Isibani esizungeze i-nucleus futhi sigcwele izinkanyezi sithuthuka ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo.
  • Idiski lezinto eziphakathi kwezinkanyezi.
  • I-halo, okuyindawo enkulu esabalele ezungeze isakhiwo esivele siqanjwe ngegama, iyahlangana ne-halo yeMilky Way engomakhelwane.

Imithala yaqhamuka kuma-protogalaxies akudala noma emafwini egesi, futhi yahlelwa ku isikhathi esifushane uma kuqhathaniswa ne-Big Bang, futhi i-Big Bang yadala indawo yonke. Ngesikhathi seBig Bang, kwakhiwa izakhi ezilula i-hydrogen ne-helium. Ngale ndlela, i-proto-galaxy yokuqala kumele yakhiwe ngalezi zinto.

Ekuqaleni, udaba lusatshalaliswa ngokulinganayo, kepha kokunye amaphuzu luqongelela okungaphezulu kokunye. Kuphi ukuminyana kuphakeme, amandla adonsela phansi aqala ukusebenza futhi abangele ukuthi kunqwabelane izinto eziningi. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukusikwa kwamandla adonsela phansi kudale ama-protogalaxies. I-Andromeda ingaba ngumphumela wokuhlanganiswa kwama-protogalaxies amaningana awenzeka eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi edlule.

Ngokubheka ukuthi iminyaka elinganiselwa yendawo yonke yiminyaka eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-13.700, i-Andromeda yakhiwa ngemuva nje kweBig Bang, njengeMilky Way. Ngesikhathi ikhona, i-Andromeda yamunca amanye ama-protogalaxies nemithala, yayisiza yakha isimo sayo samanje. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinga labo lokwakheka kwezinkanyezi nalo selishintshile ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ngoba izinga lokwakheka kwezinkanyezi liyakhula phakathi kwalezi zindlela.

Cepheids

Ukuguquguquka kweCepheid yizinkanyezi ezikhanya ngokwedlulele, ezikhanya kakhulu kunelanga, ngakho-ke bayabonakala ngisho nasekude kakhulu. IPolaris noma iPole Star iyisibonelo sezinkanyezi eziguquguqukayo zeCepheid. Isici sabo ukuthi bazokwandiswa futhi basikwe ngezikhathi ezithile, lapho ukukhanya kwabo kuzokwanda njalo kunciphe. Yingakho abizwa ngokuthi izinkanyezi ezishayayo.

Lapho amalambu amabili akhanya ngokulinganayo ebonwa kude ebusuku, angaba nokukhanya okufanayo okungokwemvelo, kepha omunye wemithombo yokukhanya nawo ungakhanya kancane futhi usondele, ngakho-ke ubukeka efanayo.

Ubukhulu benkanyezi buhlobene nokukhanya kwayo: kusobala ukuthi ubukhulu bukhulu, ukukhanya kukhulu ngokwengeziwe. Ngokuphambene nalokho, umehluko phakathi kobukhulu obubonakalayo nobukhulu obungaphakathi buhlobene nebanga eliya emthonjeni.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomthala i-Andromeda nezimpawu zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.