Umthala ovuthayo

izici zemithala evunguza

Kuwo wonke umhlaba owaziwayo sinezinhlobo eziningi zemithala. Enye yazo yi Umthala ovunguza. Iqembu elikhulu lesenzo lezinkanyezi ezimise okwediski ezinezingalo ezijikelezayo futhi ezikhumbuza ukwakheka kwensimbi yomoya. Ukuma kwezingalo kuyehluka ngezindlela eziningi, kepha kuvame ukuhlukaniswa kuzo zonke izikhungo ezijiyile lapho kuhluma khona lemiklamo. Njengoba cishe i-60% yemithala eyaziwayo ingumoya, sizogxila kule ndatshana ekukuchazeleni yona.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi ngomthala wokuvunguza nezici zawo.

Izici eziyinhloko

izingalo Kuvunguza

Imithala emibili kwezintathu evungayo inebha emaphakathi eyenziwe ngomunye wohlobo lwayo olwaziwa ngokuthi umthala ovinjelwe ovinjelwe. Kubizwa kanjena ukwazi ukuhlukanisa nalokho okulula. Inemiklamo emibili kuphela ephuma ebhavini nomoya ohlangothini olufanayo. Isibonelo salolu hlobo lomthala wokuvunguza yiMilky Way. Isigaxa esimaphakathi salolu hlobo lomthala ngu umbala obomvu ngenxa yobukhona bezinkanyezi ezindala. Ku-nucleus yomthala kunesilinganiso esincane segesi futhi maphakathi nendawo kufakwa imbobo emnyama.

Amadiski akha izingalo zomthala ovunguzayo anombala oluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka futhi acebile ngamagesi nothuli. Iningi lalezi zingalo ligcwele izinkanyezi ezincane, ezishisayo ezihlala zizungeza ezindleleni ezicishe ziyisiyingi. Ngokuqondene nemiklamo yomoya, kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zemiklamo engasuka kuleyo esonga ubungako obuphakathi iye kulezo ezinengalo ezihlelwe ngokusobala. Iningi labo ligqame ngokuba nalo inani elikhulu lezinkanyezi ezincane, eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka futhi ezinamazinga okushisa aphezulu.

Futhi sinomthala wokuvunguza u-halo oyindilinga ozungeze yonke idiski ngokuphelele eyakhiwa inani elincane legesi nothuli. Kulesi halo esiyindilinga kunezinkanyezi ezindala eziqoqwe ngamaqoqo ama-globular stellar. La maqoqo ezinkanyezi embulunga ayilutho nje kuphela amaqoqo amakhulu ezinkanyezi aqukethe izigidigidi zezinkanyezi futhi ahamba ngesivinini esikhulu.

Izinhlobo ze-galaxy evunguza

Umthala ophakathi

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zomthala wokuvunguza ngokuya ngokuma kwezingalo nokwakheka kwangaphakathi. Ukuhlukanisa le mithala ngokwe-morphology yayo, imfoloko yokuhlenga eyenziwe ngu U-Edwin hubble. Lesi sigaba siguqulwe kamuva ngezinye izazi zezinkanyezi ngokungeza izici ezintsha nezinhlobo ezintsha.

Incwadi kaHubble ibhale imithala ngale ndlela: I-E yemithala eyi-elliptical, i-SO yemithala emise okwe-lenticular kanye ne-S yemiklamo ejikelezayo. Njengoba ulwazi ngalolu hlobo lomthala lukhuphukile, kunezelwe ezinye izigaba ezifana nemithala evinjelwe evinjelwe, leyo ene-SB nemithala imilo yayo engalandeli iphethini futhi engajwayelekile: Irr. Cishe ama-90% ayo yonke imithala ebonwayo iyi-elliptical noma i-spiral. Bangu-10% kuphela abasesigabeni se-Irr.

Umthala wethu, i IMilky Way ingeyohlobo SBb. Ilanga likolunye lwezingalo ezijikelezayo ezaziwa ngegama lika-Orion. Ingalo ka-Orion ibizwa kanjalo ngoba izinkanyezi zale nkanyezi zitholakala. I-constellation ye-Orion ingenye yesiteleka kakhulu esingabonakala kwiplanethi yethu.

Umsuka womthala wokuvunguza

Umthala ovunguza

Imvelaphi yomthala wokuvunguza awaziwa ngokuqinisekile, kepha kunemibono ethile ngakho. Okokuqala, izazi zezinkanyezi zaphawula ukuthi izakhiwo ezahlukahlukene ezakha umthala ovunguza zizungeza ngejubane elihlukile. Lokhu kuzungezisa kubizwa umehluko ukujikeleza futhi kuyisici esiyingqayizivele salolu hlobo lomthala. Ngaphakathi kwidiski lemiklamo ijikeleza ngokushesha okukhulu kunangaphandle, kanti endaweni ye-halo eyisiyingi ayizungezi. Ngalesi sizathu bekucatshangwa ukuthi lokhu bekuyimbangela yokuvela kwemiklamo. Njengamanje, lobu ubufakazi bokuba khona kwe- indaba emnyama.

Uma kunjalo, lemiklamo ethandwayo yayiyohlala isikhashana ngokwesayensi yezinkanyezi. Futhi kungenxa yokuthi le miklamo yayiyoziphelela bese igcina ngokunyamalala.

Umehluko ngomthala we-elliptical

Kulula ukudida umthala wokuvunguza nomthala we-elliptical. Umehluko osobala kakhulu phakathi kwazo ukuthi izinkanyezi ezisemthaleni oyindilinga zisatshalaliswa ngokulinganayo kunasemoyeni. Kulolu hlobo lomthala wokuvunguza, izinkanyezi zibonakala zigxile kakhulu kumadiski abomvu futhi zisakazeke ezingalweni ezijikelezayo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma sihlaziya ukusatshalaliswa kwezinkanyezi emthaleni oyindilinga siyabona ukuthi inesimo esiseqanda.

Esinye isici esisiza ukuhlukanisa lezi zinhlobo ezimbili zomthala ukuba khona noma ukungabi khona kwegesi yezinkanyezi nothuli. Uma siya emithaleni eyisiyingi siyabona ukuthi iningi lendaba seliguqulwe laba izinkanyezi ngakho-ke linomoya omncane nothuli. Emthaleni ovunguzayo sinezindawo lapho igesi nothuli kubangela khona izinkanyezi ezintsha. Lezi zindawo zigcwele kakhulu.

Esinye isici esingasibheka ukuhlukanisa le mithala umehluko ophawulekayo okhona enanini lezinkanyezi. Izazi zezinkanyezi zihlukanisa abantu bezinkanyezi ngokusho ukuthi bancane noma ngaphezulu. Imithala ye-elliptical iqukethe izinkanyezi zasendulo eziningi kanye nezinto ezimbalwa ezisinda kune-helium. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma sihlaziya imithala evunguza siyakubona lokho aqukethe inani lezinkanyezi ezincane nezinkanyezi ezindala. Kodwa-ke, engxenyeni yediski nasezingalweni inani labantu abancane lidlangile futhi ngezinga eliphakeme lensimbi. I-Eta isho ukuthi aqukethe inani eliphakeme lezinto ezisindayo nezinsalela zezinkanyezi esezivele zanyamalala. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ku-halo eyisiyingi kukhona izinkanyezi ezindala kakhulu.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngomthala wokuvunguza nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.