Umfula iJordani

Jordan river in the bible

El Umfula iJordani ingumfula omncane ongamakhilomitha angama-320 ubude. Isuka eziNtabeni Zase-Anti-Lebanon enyakatho yakwa-Israyeli, idlulele oLwandle LwaseGalile emaphethelweni asenyakatho eNtaba iHermoni, futhi iphelele oLwandle Olufile ekupheleni kwayo eningizimu. Yakha umugqa womngcele phakathi kweJordani ne-Israel. Umfula iJordani ungumfula omkhulu kunayo yonke, ongcwele futhi obaluleke kunayo yonke eZweni Elingcwele futhi kukhulunywa ngawo izikhathi eziningi eBhayibhelini.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, umlando, i-geology nokubaluleka koMfula iJordani.

Izici eziyinhloko

Izinsongo Zomfula iJordani

Esinye sezici zoMfula iJordani yilokho ingaphezu kwamakhilomitha angama-360 ubude, kodwa ngenxa yomzila wawo omazombezombe, ibanga langempela phakathi komthombo walo noLwandle Olufile lingaphansi kwamakhilomitha angu-200. Ngemuva kuka-1948, umfula waphawula umngcele phakathi kuka-Israyeli neJordani, kusukela engxenyeni eseningizimu yoLwandle LwaseGalile ukuya lapho umfula u-Abis ugeleza khona usuka ogwini olusempumalanga (kwesokunxele).

Kodwa-ke, kusukela ngo-1967, lapho amasosha akwa-Israel ethatha iWest Bank (okungukuthi, indawo yaseWest Bank eningizimu lapho ihlangana khona noMfula i-Ibis), umfula iJordani uye wanwebela eningizimu olwandle njengendlela yokuqeda ukulwa.

AmaGreki ayebiza umfula i-Aulon futhi ngezinye izikhathi ama-Arabhu ayewubiza ngokuthi i-Al-Sharī'ah ("indawo yamanzi okuphuza"). AmaKristu, amaJuda namaSulumane ayawuhlonipha uMfula iJordani. Kwakusemanzini alo lapho uJesu abhapathizwa khona nguJohane oNgcwele uMbhapathizi. Umfula ubulokhu uyindawo engcwele yenkolo nendawo yokubhapathiza.

UMfula iJordani unemithombo emithathu eyinhloko, yonke evela phansi kweNtaba iHermoni. Okude kunawo wonke kulawa yi-Ḥāṣbānī, eduze ne-Ḥāṣbayyā e-Lebanon, engamafidi angu-1800. (550m). Umfula uBanias udabula eSiriya usuka empumalanga. Maphakathi kunomfula wakwaDani, amanzi awo aqabulayo ngokukhethekile.

Ngaphakathi nje kwa-Israyeli, lemifula emithathu ihlangana eSigodini saseHula. Ekuqaleni ithafa lesigodi sase-Ḥula laligcwele amachibi namaxhaphozi, kodwa ngawo-1950 amakhilomitha-skwele angaba ngu-60 akhishwa amanzi ukuze akhe amapulazi. Ngawo-1990, ingxenye enkulu yesitezi sesigodi yayicekelwe phansi futhi izingxenye zazicwile emanzini.

Kwanqunywa ukuthi kugcinwe ichibi kanye namaxhaphozi azungezile njengendawo yokulondoloza imvelo evikelekile, futhi ezinye zezitshalo nezilwane, ikakhulukazi izinyoni ezifudukayo, zabuyela endaweni. Emaphethelweni aseningizimu alesi sigodi, uMfula iJordani unqamula umhosha ngokusebenzisa isithiyo se-basalt. Umfula ugobhoza ubheke ngasogwini olusenyakatho loLwandle LwaseGalile.

Ukwakhiwa komfula iJordani

Umfula iJordani uphezu kwesiGodi saseJordani, ukuwohloka koqweqwe lomhlaba phakathi kuka-Israyeli neJordani okwakhiwa ngesikhathi seMiocene lapho i-Arabian plate ihambela enyakatho bese isempumalanga kude ne-Afrika yanamuhla. Ngemva kweminyaka engaba yizigidi ezingu-1, izwe laphakama, nolwandle lwabohla. I-Triassic ne-Mesozoic strata itholwe empumalanga-maphakathi ne-Jordan Valley.

Izitshalo nezilwane zoMfula iJordani

israel river

Ngokungangabazeki uMfula iJordani udabula phakathi kwesinye sezifunda ezomile zaseMpumalanga Eseduze. Iningi le umhlaba ovundile utholakala eWest Bank futhi osebeni olusempumalanga nasentshonalanga yoMfula iJordani. Kulesi sigodi ungathola kusuka ezindaweni ezingaphansi kweMedithera ezinomswakama kuya ezindaweni ezomile lapho lezi zinhlobo zijwayele ukuhlala khona.

Kukhona nezinhlanzi ezifana Luciobarbus longiceps, Acanthobrama lissneri, Haplochromis flaviijosephi, Pseudophoxinus libani, Salaria fluviatilis, Zenarchopterus dispar, Pseudophoxinus drusensis, Garra ghorensis kanye ne-Oxynoemacheilus insignis; ama-mollusk i-melanopsis ammonis y i-melanopsis costata nama-crustaceans afanayo I-Potamon potassium kanye nalabo bohlobo lwe-Emerita. Emgodleni kuhlala izilwane ezincelisayo njengamagundane Mus macedonicus kanye ne-otter yase-Eurasia (ULutra lutra); izinambuzane ezifana ICalopteryx syriaca nezinyoni njengenqama yaseSinayi (I-Carpodacus synoicu).

Ngokuqondene nezitshalo, izihlahla, izihlahla notshani zivame kakhulu, futhi ngamaphuzu phezulu kumila iminqumo, imisedari, ugamthilini, ngisho nama-oki nophayini, futhi ekugcineni kumila izihlahla ezinameva.

Ukubaluleka kwezomnotho

Amanzi oMfula iJordani angumthombo wamanzi wesibili obalulekile kwa-Israyeli. Amanzi amaningi asetshenziselwa ukuxhasa ngezimali ezolimo namafuyo, futhi njengoba inani lemifula likhula futhi nomnotho uthuthuka, ukumpompa amanzi kubalulekile ukuze kuhlangatshezwane nezidingo zezakhamuzi. IJordani iyodwa ithola ama-cubic metres ayizigidi ezingu-50 zamanzi eMfuleni iJordani.

Izidingo zamanzi okulima nokusetshenziswa kwasekhaya ziphezulu; ngakolunye uhlangothi, izidingo zamanzi zomkhakha wezimboni zincane kakhulu. Lokhu kungenxa yokwanda kwenani nezinga lezimboni eziseGulf of Aqaba zone yezimboni kanye nesifunda soLwandle Olufile.

Izinsongo

Umfula iJordani

Umfula iJordani owake waba umfula ocwebile futhi ophephile, usuwumthombo wamanzi angcoliswe kakhulu futhi anosawoti omningi. Empeleni, umfula udabula kwesinye sezifunda ezinabantu abaningi kakhulu futhi ezingenawo amanzi emhlabeni, ngakho ukusetshenziswa kwemithombo yawo yemvelo kuvame ukudlula amandla awo okuvuselela. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi ukugeleza komfula kwehliselwe ku-2% wokugeleza kwawo kwasekuqaleni. Ukuhwamuka okuphezulu, isimo sezulu esomile, nokumpompa ngokweqile kuholela ekuphumeni kukasawoti. Ngamafuphi, abantu banendaba nekusasa loMfula iJordani kanye nabantu abasesigodini sawo.

Ukuze kugwenywe izinkinga ezingathi sína zemvelo, ezinye izinhlangano nohulumeni baye bahlangana ukuze bagxile ekuphathweni okusimeme kwemithombo yomfula. Umfudlana wamanzi ahlanzekile endaweni evamile eyomile yaseMpumalanga Ephakathi, uMfula iJordani uwumthombo obalulekile, oyingqayizivele, futhi oyigugu ezigidini zabantu abahlala eduze nawo.

Ilahlekelwe cishe u-98% wokugeleza kwayo okurekhodiwe uma izwe elisebenzisa amanzi alo (I-Israel, iSyria, iJordani nePalestine) cishe izokoma eminyakeni embalwa ezayo. Ngaphandle kwezinyathelo eziqinile nezisebenzayo. I-Israel, iSyria kanye neJordani banembangela yokubhidlika koMfula iJordani, umfula lapho uJesu abhapathizwa khona, manje osekuyipayipi lendle elivulekele esibhakabhakeni okugeleza kuwo izinkulungwane zama-cubic metres amanzi angcolile. Amanzi oLwandle LwaseGalile noLwandle Olufile, amakhilomitha angu-105 ukuya eningizimu, athululwa ngesilinganiso esicishe sibe ama-cubic metres ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-1.300 ngonyaka.

Izwe lakwa-Israyeli lihlala lidlulisela amanzi, okuyisilinganiso esingama-46,47% sokugeleza kokusetshenziswa kwasekhaya nokukhiqizwa kwezolimo; ISyria ingama-25,24%, Jordan 23,24% kanye nePalestine 5,05%. Ngakho-ke, umfula iJordani awusewona umthombo oqhubekayo wamanzi ahlanzekile ekhwalithi ephezulu, futhi ukugeleza kwawo manje akufinyeleli kuma-cubic metres ayizigidi ezingu-20-30 ngonyaka.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoMfula iJordani nezici zawo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.