I-Amazon River

Izimpawu

Enye yemifula eyaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni ngokuba namandla kakhulu futhi umfula omkhulu eNingizimu Melika yi Umfula i-Amazon. Isizathu sokuthi kube umfula omkhulu kunayo yonke emhlabeni yingoba ithwala amanzi amaningi kuneNayile, iYangtze kanye ne- UMississippi ndawonye. Ukuba ngumfula onamandla amakhulu kangaka futhi onebheseni elikhulu kangaka le-hydrographic, wondla sonke isifunda nezinkulungwane zezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo, eziningi zazo ezingakahlukaniswa.

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela zonke izici, ukwakheka komhlaba nokwakheka koMfula i-Amazon.

Izici eziyinhloko

I-Amazon River

Kungumfula otholakala eNingizimu Melika futhi amanzi amakhulu anawo amasha. Ugeleza usuka e-Andes ePeru, lapho amanzi ancibilika ancibilikisa khona lo mfula ukuphakama cishe kwamamitha ayi-6.000. Lo mfula ugeleza esifundeni sonke uye eBrazil, okuyilapho usungenela khona ulwandle olwandle. Kungashiwo ukuthi umcengezi we-hydrographic walo mfula mkhulu kunanoma yimuphi omunye umfula. Inobukhulu bamakhilomitha-skwele ayizigidi eziyi-7. Okungukuthi, umcengezi we-hydrographic woMfula i-Amazon ihlanganisa ama-40% wendawo yonke yeNingizimu Melika.

Kuwo wonke uhambo lwayo lidlula ezingxenyeni zeBrazil, iBolivia, iColombia, i-Ecuador, iGuyana, iVenezuela, iPeru neSuriname. Wonke la mazwe asebenzisa amanzi oMfula i-Amazon ngandlela thile. Kunjalo-ke ukubaluleka kwalo mfula okuthi, uzungeze lonke leli hlathi yaziwa umhlaba wonke njengephaphu lomhlaba.

Kulinganiselwa ukuthi isilinganiso samanzi akhishelwa e-Atlantic cishe angama-209.000 cubic metres ngomzuzwana wamanzi, okuba cishe ama-cubic kilometres angama-6591 ngonyaka. Leli nani lamanzi liyasiza futhi lisize abantu bomdabu kuwo wonke umlando ukusungula abantu abazungeze imifula. Njengoba kwaziwa, ezikhathini zasendulo inkambo yamanzi ezinzile yayidingeka ukuze kulungiselelwe futhi kusungulwe lonke inani labantu elizungezile. Uma amanzi ebengenakuthuthukiswa kwesintu.

Ukujula komfula kuyahluka kwezinye izindawo. Izingxenye eziphansi kakhulu zirekhodwa ekujuleni kwamamitha angama-20, kanti izindawo ezijule kakhulu zifinyelela kumamitha angama-90-100. Ububanzi buzophinda bunikeze nomzila wayo. Kunezindawo, ikakhulukazi ekuqaleni, ezinobubanzi obulinganiselwa kumakhilomitha ayi-1.6. Kodwa-ke, ububanzi obukhulu obuqoshiwe ngamakhilomitha ayi-10. Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi ngesikhathi semvula ukugeleza komfula kukhula kakhulu futhi kwenza ububanzi obungafinyelela kubo bufinyelele kumakhilomitha angama-50.

Ukuze ukwazi ukufaka ubuningi bamanzi, kuyadingeka ukuthi ube nemithamo eminingi. Futhi ukuthi uMfula i-Amazon unemifula eyi-1100 ngokuhambisana namakhilomitha angaphezu kuka-6.400 ubude. Eminye yemifula eyinhloko okuyimifula eletha amanzi amaningi yimifula iNapo, Pastaza, Caquetá, Chambira, Tapajós, Nanay neHuallaga. Umfudlana omude kunayo yonke i-Amazon uMfula iMadeira.

Yize kungumfula omkhulu kunayo yonke emhlabeni, uyaqhubeka nokulwela isikhundla sokuqala noMfula iNayile ngendaba yobude. Imvelaphi yalo mfula ayikacaci ngokuphelele, ngakho-ke kusacatshangwa ukuthi uMfula iNayile mude kunayo yonke emhlabeni.

Ukwakheka koMfula i-Amazon

Izimbali zase-Amazon

Lonke uhlelo olugelezayo lomfula lwakhiwe ngomfula oshiwo nayo yonke imifula yawo. Imingenela ibhekisele emithanjeni enikeza ukugeleza kwamanzi emfuleni omkhulu. Lo mfula awuhambi ulayini oqondile kodwa kunalokhoe yakha isibalo esihamba phambili sisuka e-Andes yasePeru kuya enyakatho bese siya empumalanga. Ukugogeka kwalezi zibalo ezilinganisayo kwaziwa njengama-meanders. La ma-meanders acebile ngezinto eziphilayo ngoba kuneziduli eziningi ezizoshaya futhi zinikeze ukwakheka ukukhululeka okusha.

La ma-meanders aqhuma ngokuhamba kwesikhathi yonke indawo ezungezile. Ngendlela yokuthi, eminyakeni nangeminyaka ukuguguleka kuphele futhi kuguqule yonke indawo futhi, ngakho-ke, kuthinte nemvelo. Futhi lokho, kuya ngemvula yaminyaka yonke kanye nombuso wemvula namandla Siyabona ukuthi amandla okuguqula oMfula i-Amazon abaluleke impela.

Uhlelo lujoyinwa yi Umfula i-Orinoco futhi iqhubeka igeleza ize ibumbe i-delta efinyelela kumakhilomitha angama-320 ububanzi. Kungashiwo ukuthi empeleni ayinayo i-delta uqobo lwayo, kepha ukuthi yimisinga yoLwandle i-Atlantic namandla amagagasi ayivimbelayo ukuthi ingafakwa emadakeni. Esinye sezici ezisemqoka zalo mfula ukuthi, lapho uhamba khona, unamanzi nezimpophoma ezenza kube nzima ukuhamba ngolwandle. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ukufakwa kokugeleza okusha okwenziwa yizinkantolo kungenisa izindawo zemisinga eqondile.

Kunezifundo eziningi ze-geological eziphakamisa ukuthi uMfula i-Amazon wavela ngesikhathi seMiocene. Lokhu kwenzeka cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-12 edlule. Wazalwa ngokuyinhloko njengomfula i-transcontinental ngesikhathi iNingizimu Melika yanamuhla ne-Afrika behlangene ezweni elilodwa elibizwa ngokuthi iGondwana. Kucatshangwa ukuthi ngenxa yokuthambekela, uMfula i-Amazon wageleza usuka empumalanga uye entshonalanga hhayi njengoba usenza namuhla.

Ukuphakama komhlaba nokwakhiwa kwama-Andes kwenzeka ekupheleni kwe isikhathi se-cretaceous. Lokhu kwenzeke njengomphumela wokushayisana kwamapuleti ama-tectonic abizwa ngeNazca kanye ne-South American plate. Lokhu kungqubuzana kwamapuleti kubangele ukuthi wonke amanzi aphenduke ulwandle olungaphakathi nezwe nokuthi, kancane kancane, kwakuthola izici ezingamaxhaphozi. Kungaleso sikhathi lapho, eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-11 eyedlule, amanzi ayengase agelezele emazweni aphansi ngenxa yokuvalwa okwakukhona ukugeleza kwamanzi okwabangelwa yi-Andes futhi ekugcineni kwathululela olwandle.

Isimo samanje soMfula i-Amazon sifinyelela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-2.4 edlule. Lokhu kuyenza ibe ngomunye wemifula emincane kunayo yonke.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoMfula i-Amazon.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.