Ulwandle oluseNyakatho

ukwakheka kolwandle olusenyakatho

Olunye lwezilwandle ezincane kunazo zonke ezaziwayo yi- Ulwandle oluseNyakatho. Kungumzimba wamanzi anosawoti othathwa njengolwandle olungaphelele ngaphakathi koLwandle i-Atlantic. Itholakala entshonalanga yezwekazi laseYurophu phakathi kwe-United Kingdom, iJalimane, iFrance, iBelgium, iNetherlands, iDenmark, iSweden neNorway, inesimo esingunxande esihlanganisa indawo engaba ngu-570,000 km2 nomthamo wama-54,000 -94,000 km3.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, ukwakheka, ukuhlukahluka kwemvelo kanye nezinsongo zoLwandle lwaseNyakatho.

Izici eziyinhloko

Ulwandle oluseceleni koLwandle i-Atlantic ubude balo buphelele Kulinganiselwa kumakhilomitha angama-960 kanti ingxenye ebanzi kunayo yonke ingamakhilomitha angama-580. Ulwandle oluxhuma nolunye u-Atlantic Ocean ngePas de Calais kanye ne-English Channel, kanye neBaltic ngeSkagerrak Strait kanye neKattegat Strait elandelayo. Kulolu lwandle kunenqwaba yeziqhingi ezinjengeziQhingi zaseFrisian, iFarne, ezinye iziqhingi ezincane neziqhingana eziseduze nolwandle.

Imifula eyondla kakhulu lolu lwandle yiRhine, iGloma, i-Elbe, iWeser, iDrammen, i-Ätran, iThames, iTrent kanye ne-Ems. Ukuba ulwandle oluncane kakhulu ngeminyaka akujulile. Engxenyeni esenyakatho iyajula kancane kepha ifinyelela kuphela kwezinye izindawo ngokujula kwamamitha angama-90. Ukujula okuphezulu okulinganiselwe kungamamitha ayi-700 kanti ingxenye esenyakatho isendaweni yesiNorway. Ngamanzi noma amazinga okushisa aphansi kakhulu kwesinye isikhathi aqandayo. Kwesinye isikhathi kubonakala ukuthi izintaba zeqhwa zintanta ngaphezulu.

Into ejwayelekile kunazo zonke ukuthi ngesikhathi sasebusika amanzi eNorth Sea ebusweni afinyelela kuma-degree ayi-6 ngokwesilinganiso, kanti ehlobo izinga lokushisa likhuphukela kuma-17 degrees. Ukugeleza kasawoti okuphezulu kakhulu kuvela e-Atlantic kanti amazinga okushisa aphansi namanzi anosawoti aphansi kakhulu avela eBaltic. Njengoba kulindelekile, izindawo ezinosawoti omncane walolu lwandle yilezo ezisezindaweni eziseduze nemilomo yemifula.

Emaphethelweni oLwandle oluseNyakatho yehlukile kuye ngesifunda esikuso. Ikakhulukazi engxenyeni esenyakatho nasogwini lwaseNorway imifula, amawa, amabhishi amatshe amatshe, izigodi namabhishi anezindunduma zesihlabathi kuvamile. Zonke lezi zinhlelo zemvelo ziyafana nendawo yasogwini lwaseNorway. Kodwa-ke, ezindaweni ezisempumalanga nasentshonalanga ezinye zithola ukukhululeka okuvamile kanti ezinye izindawo ezingamagquma ziyahluka.

Ukwakhiwa kolwandle olusenyakatho

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, kungenye yezilwandle ezincane kunazo zonke emhlabeni. Ineminyaka engaba ngu-3.000 XNUMX kuphela ubudala endaweni esogwini. Kwaqala ukukhula kusuka ekuhlukanisweni kwezwekazi elikhulu iPangea kwazise lokhu kwehlukaniswa kwakuvula inqwaba yomhlaba owawondliwa ngemilomo yemifula eshiwo ngenhla. Ekuqaleni kwe Isikhathi seCenozoic, i-supercontinent yahlukana futhi i-Atlantic yayisivele yakha.

Kungashiwo ukuthi lolu lwandle lwakhiwe lwaba izingxenye ngezinguquko ezithile ezenzeke ezingeni le-geological. Ngesikhathi I-Triassic y I-Jurassic kwakhiwa inqwaba yezindlu namaphutha ashiya sonke isifunda lapho namuhla izindawo eziphakeme kakhulu zakhiwe ngokuphelele. Lokhu kwenza ukuthi ezinye izindawo zibe namanzi amaningi. Ngalesi sikhathi sokwakheka komhlaba wawusukhuphukile kanti iziQhingi zaseBrithani zazingakakheki.

Kamuva ngesikhathi se-Oligocene, isikhungo nentshonalanga yezwekazi laseYurophu kwase kuvele amanzi. Cishe wonke amanzi ahlukanise iTethys Ocean avele. Cishe yiminyaka eyizigidi ezi-2.6 edlule, ngesikhathi sika I-Pliocene iNorth Sea Basin yayivele iseningizimu yeDogger Bank, yayiyingxenye yeYurophu kanti iRhine yathululelwa emanzini ayo anosawoti. Ngenxa yeminyaka ehlukene yeqhwa eyenzeka ngesikhathi, ama-ice sheet ayakha futhi ehlehla ngesikhathi sePleistocene.

Eminyakeni engama-8.000 XNUMX kuphela edlule iqhwa lanyamalala ngokuphelele futhi nolwandle lwaqala ukukhuphuka. Ngenxa yomnikelo wamanzi emifuleni nokunyamalala kweqhwa, ulwandle lungaqala ukwakheka ngokuphelele. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukwanda kolwandle kwenza ukuba ibhuloho lomhlaba phakathi kweGreat Britain neFrance ligcwale amanzi futhi i-English Channel nobubi baseNyakatho kwaxhunywa.

Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo eNorth Sea

Ulwandle oluseNyakatho

Njengoba kulindelekile, lolu lwandle lucebe ngokuhlukahluka kwezinto eziphilayo futhi aluyona nje indawo yokuhlala izilwane eziningi, kodwa futhi luyindawo evakashela izilwane ezifudukayo. Sithola inqwaba yezilwane ezincelisayo ezinjenge-common seal, i-hoof seal, i-porpoise ejwayelekile, i-ringed seal, i-whale efanele kanye nezinye izinhlobo eziningi zezilwane ezincelisayo. Ngokuqondene nezinhlanzi, sinezinhlobo ezahlukene ezingaphezu kuka-230 phakathi kwazo sithola i-cod, i-flatfish, i-dogfish, i-pout ne-herring. Zonke lezi zinhlobonhlobo zezinhlanzi zithandwa yinani elikhulu lezakhamzimba ezinikezwa yimifula nangokuba khona kweplankton.

Siphinde sithole inqwaba yemvelo efanelekile enikezela izindawo zokuhlala ezifanele zokwakha izidleke nokuhlala kwezinye izinyoni zasolwandle nezifudukayo. Lezi zichweba zilungele ukuvikela izinhlobo eziningi. Phakathi kwezinyoni zasolwandle eziphephela kulezi ziziqhingi esinazo ama-loon, ama-auks, ama-puffin, ama-terns nama-fulmars abizayo. Ezikhathini zasendulo iNorth Sea yayaziwa kangcono kakhulu ngokuhlukahluka kwayo kunanamuhla. Emakhulwini eminyaka adlule ukwehlukahlukana kwezinto kule ndawo kwehle kakhulu.

Izinsongo

Umuntu ukhona ezinsongweni eziningi zazo zonke izilwandle nezilwandle zomhlaba. Njengoba ungalindela, leli cala alihlukile. Njengomphumela wokutholakala kwezinqolobane zikawoyela negesi yemvelo ezikhona ngaphansi kwalesi sigaba solwandle, iNorth Sea kube yisihloko sokuxhashazwa okukhulu kwezebhizinisi. Onke amazwe azungeze iNorth Sea abelokhu exhaphaza izinsizakusebenza zikaphethiloli futhi ogwini bazicebisa ngokukhishwa kwesihlabathi namatshe.

Ngenxa yale misebenzi yezomnotho, ukuhlukahluka kwezinto eziphilayo zasolwandle kuye kwancipha uma kunikezwa ukwethulwa kwemishini ezindaweni zokuhlala zemvelo kanye namazinga aphezulu okungcola kanye nokudoba ngokweqile. Ezinye izinhlobo ziye zanyamalala njenge-flamingo ne-giant auk. Lolu hlobo lokugcina luphelile kuwo wonke umhlaba.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngeNorth Sea nezimpawu zayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.