Ulwandle i-Aral

Enye yezinhlekelele zemvelo ezaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni kube wukulahleka komthamo wamanzi ku Ulwandle i-Aral. Ulwandle olulahlekelwe yi-90% yalo lonke umthamo wamanzi phakathi neminyaka engu-50 edlule. Okudabukisa kakhulu ukuthi lolu lwandle lwaba yichibi lesine ngobukhulu emhlabeni futhi selincishiswe laba yize.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela konke odinga ukukwazi mayelana noLwandle i-Aral nokuthi yiziphi izimbangela zokulahleka kwalo kwamanzi.

Izici eziyinhloko

ulwandle olomile lwe-aral

Yize laziwa ngegama loLwandle i-Aral, liyichibi elisemaphandleni elingaxhunyanisiwe nanoma yiluphi ulwandle noma ulwandle. Itholakala enyakatho-ntshonalanga yeKyzyl Kum desert phakathi kwe-Uzbekistan yanamuhla neKazakhstan. Inkinga ukuthi itholakala endaweni enezindawo eziningi ezomile e-Asia Ephakathi lapho amazinga okushisa ehlobo ephakeme kakhulu. Lawa mazinga okushisa ngokuvamile azungeze ama-40 degrees Celsius.

Njengoba ingaphezulu lamanzi nomthamo ojwayelekile lolu lwandle olushintshashintshayo unyaka nonyaka, ukubala inani elikuwo kucishe kube yinkimbinkimbi. Ngo-1960 yayinendawo engamakhilomitha-skwele angama-68.000 ngenkathi ngo-2005 yayinendawo engamakhilomitha-skwele angama-3.500 1.76 kuphela. Yize kuyo yonke indishi yayo ye-hydrographic ifinyelela kumakhilomitha-skwele ayizigidi eziyi-XNUMX futhi ithatha ingxenye enkulu yayo yonke i-Asia emaphakathi.

Kuze kube ngawo-1960 lonke ulwandle i-Aral lwalondliwa kakhulu yimifula ehlukahlukene. Le mifula kwakuyi-Amu Daria engxenyeni eseningizimu neSir Daria engxenyeni esenyakatho-mpumalanga. Umehluko omkhulu phakathi kweminyaka engama-50 edlule futhi manje ukuthi ukukhishwa kwamanzi amasha kuncane. Ngokuhlinzeka ngamanzi amancane ahlanzekile, usawoti wolwandle kufanele ukhule. Usawoti wasolwandle uvame ukuba ngama-gramu angama-33 ngelitha, amanzi oLwandle lwase-Aral afinyelela ngaphezu kuka-110 amagremu ngelitha.

Ukwakheka nokuhlukahluka koLwandle i-Aral

Lolu lwandle lwakhiwa ngokudangala okukhulu ngesikhathi se- Isikhathi seNeogene we Isikhathi seCenozoic. Ngaleso sikhathi izwekazi lonke laseNdiya laliphakathi kokushayisana ne-Asia. Le nqubo yokushayisana yanciphisa ubuso bolwandle iParatetis, yagcina iyicimile.. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kwabangela ukusongwa koqweqwe lomhlaba okwadala ukuthi kuvele izintaba zaseCaucasus nezintaba i-Elburz. Ukudangala okwenziwe kwaqala ukugcwala amanzi kwazise eminye imithombo efana noMfula iSil Daria yaqhamuka.

Eminyakeni eminingi emva kokudalwa kwayo, uLwandle i-Aral lomisa ingxenye enkulu kwaze kwaba ngu- I-Pleistocene futhi i Holocene, abuye ezogcwaliswa.

Ngokuqondene nokuhlukahluka kwezinto eziphilayo, bekuyindlala impela emashumini eminyaka ambalwa. Njengoba ulwandle selomile, izinhlobo zezitshalo nezilwane ezihlala kulo mfula zinciphile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, hhayi kuphela ngenxa yokulahleka komthamo wamanzi kwaba umphumela wobukhona obuphansi bezinto eziphilayo, kepha futhi nosawoti omningi wamanzi.

Endulo, ama-deltas omfula ayevundile impela futhi kwakukhona izinhlobo eziningi zezilwane nezitshalo ezaziphila ezimweni ezinhle. Lolu lwandle lwaluyikhaya lezindawo eziningi nezinhlobo zezinhlanzi, kanye nezinye izidalwa. Izinhlanzi ezazigqame kakhulu kwakuyi-sturgeon, i-Aral barbel, i-carp ne-rutile. Okucishe kube ngaphansi kwalinganiselwa ukuthi kunezinhlobo ezingaba yikhulu zezinhlanzi, izinhlobo ezingama-100 zezilwane ezincelisayo nezinhlobo zezinyoni ezingama-200. Namuhla, umphumela wezinhlobo ezithile zezinhlanzi ezisalondoloziwe, iningi lazo selinyamalele.

Izinsongo zoLwandle i-Aral

Ulwandle i-Aral

Inkinga yokuhwamuka kwamanzi avela olwandle kungumsebenzi wesenzo somuntu. Ngo-1960, iSoviet Union yakha uhlelo lokuguqula wonke amathafa awomile aleso sifunda sase-Asia abe yindawo enamandla amakhulu okukhiqiza ukotini. Ukotini udinga amanzi amaningi, ngakho-ke baphambukisa amanzi emifuleni ukuze banisele izitshalo. Ukwenza lokhu, kwakhiwa izakhiwo ezahlukahlukene ezenza umthamo wamanzi angena oLwandle i-Aral anciphe.

Kungenzeka ukukhiqiza inzuzo enkulu ngemboni kakotini, kepha lokhu ngentengo ephezulu yoLwandle i-Aral. Umthamo wamanzi olwandle wawuncipha ngesilinganiso esisheshayo. Lokhu kudale ukuthi umbhede uqale ukuvela kwezinye izindawo zolwandle, kuguqule iziqhingi zibe yizinhlonhlo noma ingxenye yomhlaba oqhubekayo. Usawoti wolwandle lwanda kakhulu njengoba umthamo wamanzi wehla. Ukuncipha kwenani lamanzi akugcinanga ngokuthinta uLwandle i-Aral, kodwa futhi kwandise ukungcola kanye nosawoti.

Zonke lezi zinguquko ezimweni zemvelo zidale izinkinga ezinkulu zokuzivumelanisa nezitshalo nezilwane. Le yindlela izinhlanzi ezaqala ngayo ukunyamalala kwazise zazingakwazi ukuthwala lezi zimo ezintsha. Izimboni zokudoba nezasolwandle zehlile futhi abantu abaningi ababethembele olwandle kwadingeka bahoxe.

Kamuva, ngeminyaka yama-90s, isiqhingi saseVozrozhdenya sase sivele siyinhlonhlo. Le nhlonhlo yaba yinto ekhathazayo, njengoba yayisetshenziselwa ukuhlolwa kwezikhali zebhayoloji phakathi neMpi Yomshoshaphansi. Ukugxila okukhulu kwezinhlamvu ze-anthrax kwaqoshwa kulezi zindawo. Kusekuqaleni konyaka ka-2000 lapho yonke indawo ihlanzwa ngokweqile ukuze ikwazi ukuyikhulula ekungcolisweni kwama-microorganism ayingozi kubantu.

Isifunda sonke se-Aral Sea sithinteka kakhulu futhi kuyalimaza impilo yabantu. Yize ukuhlanzwa kwenziwa ngendlela eyeqisayo, bekusekhona nanamuhla, uthuli oluphakanyiswa umoya lunenqwaba yezinto ezinobuthi ezikwazi ukudala izifo ezithile eziyingozi. Kulezi zinhlayiya zothuli kunezinhlayiya zikamanyolo nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Yize kwenziwe imizamo eminingi yokuhlenga lolu lwandle, kunzima kakhulu ukuthi amanzi athathe indawo yawo. Ngo-2005, iKazakhstan yakha idamu elisebenza ukwehlukanisa amanzi engxenye esenyakatho nengxenye eseningizimu. Le dike ebangele ukwanda okuncane kumthamo wolwandle kuze kube namuhla engxenyeni esenyakatho.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi nge-Aral Sea.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.