Ugwadule lwe-Atacama, indawo eyoma kakhulu emhlabeni

Ukwakheka kwedwala ehlane lase-Atacama

Iplanethi esiphila kuyo yizwe lapho kuhlala khona kokubili ukweqisa naphakathi, ihlane le-Atacama liyindawo lapho izilwane nezitshalo kunezinkinga eziningi zokuza phambili.

Yisifunda esome kakhulu esikhona, kodwa kungani?

Imephu ye-Atacama Likuphi Ugwadule i-Atacama?

Ugwadule i-Atacama ugwadule olungelona olusePoland oluseNingizimu Melika okwamanje olumumatha indawo ecishe ibe yi-105.000km2, enobude obucishe bube yi-1600km nobubanzi obukhulu be-180km. Kuklanywe ulwandlekazi iPacific ngasentshonalanga kanye nohla lwezintaba i-Andes empumalanga.

NgeyaseChile, futhi inemingcele neBolivia ne-Argentina. Emngceleni ohlukaniswe naleli zwe lokugcina laseNingizimu Melika, yintaba-mlilo iSocompa, ebheke ku-5250 a. C. kwaqubuka indawo engamakhilomitha ayi-600km2 ngemfucumfucu (amadwala enzelwe). Ungabona okuningi mayelana nendawo yayo ebalazweni

Origen

Intaba yasogwadule i-Atacama

Ukube bekungeyona eye I-Humboldt yamanje, impela bekungaba yilokho okwakuyikho eminyakeni eyizigidi ezintathu edlule: olwandle. Futhi ukuthi lo msinga wamanje, ngokuhambisa amanzi abandayo usuka e-Antarctica uye ogwini lwaseChile nasePeruvia, wenza ukuthi umoya opholile wasolwandle uphole, wehlise ukuhwamuka futhi ngaleyo ndlela ugweme ukwakheka kwamafu emvula..

Enye into ebambe iqhaza ekuqhubekeni phambili kogwadule kule ngxenye yomhlaba umphumela weFoehn, isimo sezulu esibangela ukuthi amafu akhiphe imvula emithambekeni yezintaba, kulokhu, Izintaba ze-Andes, ukuze kuthi, uma zidlula kuzo, zingabi namanzi, okwenza ugwadule. 

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, enyakatho yezintaba i-Andes kwakhiwa i-Altiplano, okuyithafa eliphakeme nelibanzi lentaba-mlilo. Ngenkathi ngaseningizimu ithwebula umswakama ovela oLwandlekazi iPacific, enyakatho ivimbela iziphepho ezivela esifundeni sase-Amazon ukuthi zingene eChile.

Sinjani isimo sezulu ogwadule olomile emhlabeni?

Umholo wogwadule lwase-Atacama

Uma ucabanga ukuthi ihlobo laseMedithera belinzima ukubekezelela, Cabanga nje ukuthi bekungaba njani ukuhlala endaweni lapho ebusuku yehle iye ku -25ºC kuthi emini ikhuphuke ibe ngu-50ºC.. the ubukhulu bokushisa Kuphakeme kakhulu ukuthi bambalwa kakhulu abanesibindi abazama ukuhamba, futhi bambalwa kakhulu abenze leli hlane ikhaya labo.

Mayelana nemvula, imvula elinganisekayo, okungukuthi, u-1mm noma ngaphezulu, ingawa kanye njalo eminyakeni eyi-15 kuye kwengama-40. Kungathatha amakhulu eminyaka ukuthi lina kakhulu. Kepha, yize lina kancane kakhulu, phakathi nenyanga kaJanuwari noFebruwari kuneziphepho eziningi zikagesi.

Umswakama ohambisanayo womoya ungama-18% ngaphakathi, kepha ungafinyelela kuma-98% ogwini phakathi nezinyanga zasebusika, ukuze ukuzwa okushisayo kungaba ukungakhululeki kakhulu. Futhi hhayi lokho kuphela, kepha uma ulinga ukuhamba, kufanele uzivikele emisebeni ye-ultraviolet, ngoba imisebe iphezulu kakhulu.

Ugwadule lwase-Atacama nomuntu

Izibonakude zezinkanyezi ogwadule lwe-atacama

Ngaphandle kwezimo zezulu ezinzima, selokhu kwaqala ukoloni lwaseMelika, abantu bayisebenzise ngandlela thile. Eminyakeni eyi-12.000 eyedlule ikoloni lalisebenza emayini ye-iron oxide eTaltal, esifundeni sase-Antofagasta. Eminyakeni eyalandela, cishe ngo-5000 BC, ama-chinchorros aqala ukugwinya abafileyo babo. Futhi impucuko ye-Inca yathuthukiswa lapha.

Namuhla, yindawo ekahle yesintu ukuthi ifunde kabanzi nge-astronomy futhi ijabulele ezemidlalo ezingekho emgwaqeni.

Isayensi yezinkanyezi

Uma ufuna ukubuka izinkanyezi, kufanele uye endaweni ekude kakhulu nasenkabeni yedolobha, ngaphandle kwalokho ukungcoliswa kokukhanya ngeke kukuvumele ubone okuningi. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi kukhona izibonakude ongabona ngazo izinto eziningi nasemadolobheni, kepha kuzohlala kungcono ukuhlala kude nokukhanya okwenziwe ngabantu.

Ehlane lase-Atacama le nkinga ayikho. Akukhona nje ukuthi akukho ukungcola okuncane, kepha isembozo samafu esiphansi nokuphakama ngaphezu kwezinga lolwandle kwenza isithombe sibonakale ngethubhu ebonakalayo ye-telescope ebukhali kakhulu. Ngokwalesi sizathu, kunezibukeli ezingaphezu kweshumi nambili ezitholakale lapha, njenge-ALMA, okuyiphrojekthi yezinkanyezi enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni.

ezemidlalo

Uyayithanda i-rally? Uma kunjalo, kungenzeka ukuthi ubonile eminye yemiqhudelwano ebanjelwa e-Atacama, njengeBaja Atacama Rally, iPatagonia Atacama Rally, noma iDakar Series Rally. Indawo enaleli hlane iyona efaneleke kakhulu kulo mdlalo.

Izimbali nezilwane ezijwayele lesi sifunda

Flora

Yize kunzima ukukholelwa, kunezinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo ezikwazi ukuzivumelanisa nezimo, ezinjengalezi ezilandelayo:

  • ICopiapoa: luhlobo lwe-cacti olunomumo we-globose olinganisa u-10-15cm ovikelwe ngezinsipho ezimnyama ezikhiqiza izimbali ezimhlophe eziphuzi. Ngokuya ngohlobo, ingakhiqiza amaswidi.
  • ISenecio myriophyllus: yisihlahlana esikwazi ukufika ku-50cm ngezimbali eziphuzi ezifana nama-daisy ngobubanzi obungu-2cm.
  • URicinus communis: yi-shrub enamaqabunga esundu anombala oluhlaza noma obomvu ngokuya ngokuhlukahluka, okufinyelela ku-2-3m ukuphakama.

Fauna

Kunezilwane eziguquke oGwadule lwe-Atacama, ezinjengalezi ezilandelayo:

  • UPelecanus: ivuba yinyoni yasemanzini enomlomo omude odla izinhlanzi.
  • I-Vicugna vicugna: i-vicuña ikamela lama-Andes. Inesisindo esifinyelela ku-55kg uma isikhulile, futhi idla utshani.
  • UPhilodryas chamissonis: inyoka enomsila omude yinyoka ekwazi ukukala ize ifinyelele ku-140cm ubude. Idla amagundane nezinambuzane ezincane.

Izimbali Zase-Atacama Desert

Ukuphuma kwelanga ehlane lase-Atacama

Kubukeka kungakholeki ukuthi endaweni eyomile kangaka kungaba yisigcawu somunye wemibukwane emangalisa kakhulu yemvelo. Uma lina, noma ngabe kuncane kangakanani, izitshalo zikhula ngokushesha futhi zikhiqize izimbali eziningi kangangokuba zimboza ugwadule ngokuphila. Futhi uma ungangikholwa, nazi izithombe namavidiyo ambalwa. Zijabulele.

Izimbali Zase-Atacama Desert

Isithombe - Higherperspective-img.rbl.ms

 

Izitshalo eziqhakazayo ogwadule lwase-Atacama

Isithombe - Explore-Atacama.com

Ugwadule i-Atacama lungenye yezindawo ezimangalisa kakhulu emhlabeni, awucabangi?


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.