Ulwandle iMedithera

Impucuko yamaGrikhi

El ULwandle iMedithera ingenye yezilwandle ezakha i-Atlantic Ocean. Itholakala esifundeni esijoyina i-Europe eseningizimu, i-Asia esentshonalanga kanye nenyakatho ye-Afrika. Ithathwa njengolwandle olunokubaluleka okukhulu komlando kuyo yonke impucuko yasentshonalanga ngoba bekuyindawo lapho amasiko amaningi athuthuka khona. Kubhekwa njengolwandle lwesibili ngobukhulu ezweni ngaphakathi kweplanethi, ngemuva kweCaribbean.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, ukuqeqeshwa nokubaluleka koLwandle iMedithera.

Izici eziyinhloko

I-Mediterranean Sea Basin

Lolu lwandle luqukethe inani elikhulu lamanzi futhi lumele u-1% wawo wonke amanzi olwandle emhlabeni. Umthamo wayo wamanzi ngu wamakhilomitha-skwele angama-3.735.000 kanye nokujula okuphakathi ngamamitha ayi-1430. Ubude bayo ngamakhilomitha angu-3860 futhi inendawo ephelele yamakhilomitha-skwele ayizigidi ezingama-2.5. Lonke leli nani lamanzi lenza kube nokwenzeka ukugeza izindawo ezingama-3 zaseningizimu yeYurophu. Lezi zinhlonhlo yi-Iberia, i-Italic neBalkan. Iphinde igeze nenhlonhlo yase-Asia eyaziwa nge-Anatolia.

Igama loLwandle iMedithera livela kumaRoma asendulo. Emuva lapho Bengimazi njengo "Mare nostrum" noma "ulwandle lwethu." Igama leMedithera livela esiLatini i-mediterraneum kusho ukuthini phakathi komhlaba. Leli gama lingenxa yemvelaphi yemiphakathi eyayiqamba igama njengoba yayazi kuphela umhlaba ozungeze lolu lwandle. Lokhu kwabenza babheka uLwandle iMedithera njengesikhungo somhlaba. Kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo, amaGreki aqamba lolu lwandle igama kuze kube namuhla.

I-Extremar ixhunywe olwandle i-Atlantic ngokusebenzisa iStrait of Gibraltar. Itholakala phakathi kweningizimu yeYurophu, eNyakatho Afrika nasogwini olusentshonalanga ye-Near East. I-Atlantic Ocean akuyona ukuxhumana kuphela, kodwa futhi ixhunywe kuLwandle Olumnyama yiBosphorus neDardanelles Straits. Okunye ukuxhumana kwayo ngukuthi uLwandle Olubomvu. Ixhuma ngeSuez Canal.

Izingxenye zoLwandle iMedithera

Kukhona uhlu olude lwezilwandle ezincane lapho uLwandle iMedithera luhlukaniswe khona. Ngamunye uhambelana nezindawo ezithile zomhlaba noma ezinye izindawo lapho izici, noma kungenxa yezimbali, izilwane noma i-geology, ziguquka. Sizoklelisa uhlu lwezigatshana olunoLwandle iMedithera:

  • I-Alboran Sea, phakathi kweSpain neMorocco.
  • Mar menor, eningizimu-mpumalanga yeSpain.
  • ILa Mar Chica enyakatho yeMorocco.
  • I-Adriatic Sea, phakathi kwenhlonhlo yase-Italy kanye nogu lwaseSlovenia, eCroatia, eBosnia naseMontenegro.
  • Ionia Sea, phakathi kwenhlonhlo yase-Italy, iGrisi ne-Albania.
  • ULwandle lwaseLibya eTunisia.
  • ULwandle lwaseKhilikhiya phakathi kweTurkey neCyprus.
  • ILevantine Sea, ngasogwini lwaseGibhithe, eLebanon, eCyprus, kwa-Israyeli, eSyria naseTurkey.
  • ILigurian Sea, phakathi kweCorsica neLiguria.
  • ITyrrhenian Sea, phakathi kogu olusempumalanga yeSardinia, inhlonhlo yase-Italy kanye nogu olusenyakatho lweSicilian.
  • ULwandle iBalearic phakathi kogu olusempumalanga yeNhlonhlo Yase-Iberia nesiqhingi saseSardinia.
  • I-Aegean Sea, phakathi kweGrisi neTurkey.

Ukwakheka nemvelaphi

Ulwandle iMedithera

Ngemuva kokwehlukaniswa kwezwekazi elikhulu elaziwa ngePangea, kwavuleka isikhala phakathi kweYurophu, i-Afrika kanye ne-Middle East. Ngaleso sikhathi uLwandle iMedithera lwaluxhumene noLwandlekazi i-Atlantic kwaze kwaba cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyisithupha edlule lapho kwenzeka khona inkinga kasawoti kaMesiya. Ngalesi sikhathi ulwandle lwalomile kakhulu ngoba lwalunqamukile olwandle olukhulu. Lokhu kudale ukuthi kukhiqizwe amanye amanzi ngaphandle kokuthi kube khona umthelo ozolekelela ngomzimba omusha wamanzi olwandle.

Kungenzeka ukuthi ibizoqhubeka nokulahlekelwa ngamanzi, kepha ukuguguleka okuqhubekayo kwendawo kudale ishaneli elingamakhilomitha angama-250 ubude futhi amanzi avela olwandle aqala ukugeleza sengathi yisikhukhula. Ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi ukuvulwa okwenziwe ngokwakha impophoma ecishe ibe ngamakhilomitha ama-2 ububanzi bekwazi ukugcwalisa lonke uLwandle iMedithera cishe eminyakeni emibili. Le mpophoma nezikhukhula zale ndawo yonke kuguqule ukuma komhlaba. Yile ndlela okwenzeka ngayo uLwandle iMedithera njengoba sazi namuhla.

Ngokuqondene nesimo sezulu, siyabona ukuthi ihlobo ngokuvamile lifudumele, lomile futhi lizolile. Akuvamile ukuthi kube nolwandle olunesiyaluyalu esiningi sokuzulazula futhi bavame ukuba nehlobo lezinkathi ezomile. Isifunda sonke sithola imimoya emisha evela ezikhaleni eziphakathi kwezintaba zezindawo zase-Europe. Le mimoya iphikisana nemimoya efudumele evela emathafeni futhi ingeyase-Afrika futhi leyo inyusa izinga lokuhwamuka kwamanzi phakathi nezinyanga ezifudumele.

Konke lokhu kuyakhiqiza amanzi anenani eliphakeme likasawoti nomoya oswakeme ngokwengeziwe. Ubusika singabubheka njengobubandayo kepha bunesici esilinganiselayo. Ngokuvamile sithola imimoya efudumele, eyomile nezikwindla neziphethu ngokuvamile ziyahlukahluka futhi zihambisana nemvula.

Izimbali nezilwane zoLwandle iMedithera

Ngokuqondene nezidalwa ezihlala kule planethi, sinezinkinga ezinkulu zemvelo. Futhi ukuthi uLwandle iMedithera lubhekwa njengezinye zezilwandle ezingcoliswe kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngemuva kwamanzi ase-Australia, amaShayina nawaseJapan, uLwandle iMedithera lungenye yezilwandle, ukwehluka okukhulu kwezinto eziphilayo naphezu kokungcola okuphezulu.

Namuhla Izinhlobo eziyi-17.000 zichaziwe, eziyi-4% zazo zivela kwezinye izilwandle, ngakho-ke zibhekwa njengezinhlobo ezihlaselayo. Iningi lezinhlobo zezilwane nezitshalo zigxilwe ezifundeni ngokujula okukhulu ezindaweni eziseduze kweStrait of Gibraltar. Lapha sithola uLwandle i-Alboran, lonke ugu lwase-Afrika nolwaseSpain kanye nenyakatho ye-Adriatic ne-Aegean Seas.

Lolu lwandle lubhekwa njenge enye yezinto ezingcoliswe kakhulu emhlabeni njengoba iqukethe ukutholakala okuphezulu kwama-hydrocarbon nama-microplastics. Lezi zinto ezimbili ziyizinsongo ezinamandla kubhalansi yemvelo yempilo yezitshalo neyezilwane. Kungabuye kuhlotshaniswe nezingozi ezitholakala ekudobeni ngokweqile kanye nemikhumbi eyeqile yokuthengisa.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoLwandle iMedithera.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.