Ulwandle olufile

Olunye lolwandle oludume kakhulu emhlabeni ngokukhethekile kwalo yi ULwandle Olufile. Idume ngezizathu eziningana. Okokuqala inani lalo usawoti ophakeme. Lokhu kusho ukuthi impilo esemanzini ayo ayikwazi ukukhula futhi ithande ukuthi ezinye izinto zingantanta kuyo. Kuyaziwa kaningi njengoba kushiwo ezigabeni ezahlukahlukene eBhayibhelini. Yize ibizwa ngegama lolwandle, kuyichibi lokuvumela elingenalo uhlobo oluthile lokukhipha.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela zonke izici, i-geology kanye nokufuna ukwazi koLwandle Olufile.

Izici eziyinhloko

ULwandle Olufile

ILwandle Olufile liyichibi lokuvuma elizungezwe umhlaba ngokuphelele ngaphandle kokuphuma emanzini lize endaweni evulekile. Lokho kusho ukuthi, Kuyichibi le-hypersaline elinosawoti abaningi abadlula lokho kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo lolwandle noma lolwandle. Itholakala emingceleni yeJordani, Israel kanye neWest Bank. Itholakala ekujuleni okungamamitha angama-400 ngaphansi kogu lolwandle. Lokhu kungaba ngesinye sezizathu zokuthi kungani inomthamo omningi kasawoti.

Uma siyibuka ngombono, siyabona ukuthi uLwandle Olufile lungelinye lamaphuzu aphansi kakhulu emhlabeni. Lokho wukuthi, ngumzimba wamanzi ophansi kunayo yonke. Ihlukaniswe ngamabhishi amabili ahlukaniswe ibhuloho lomhlaba. Ngokuphelele, bahlala ekucindezelekeni okwenziwe ukuqhekeka noma iphutha elaziwa njenge-Jordan Valley. Lokhu kutholakala phakathi kwamagquma aseJudiya neTransjordan Plateau

Ingxenye esenyakatho yoLwandle Olufile inkulu futhi ijule kakhulu. TInobude obungamakhilomitha angama-50 futhi ifinyelela kumamitha angama-400 ukujula. Umcengezi oseningizimu, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ungamakhilomitha ayi-11 ubude futhi ungamamitha amane kuphela ukujula. Ukuphela komfula ogelezela kuleli chibi uMfula iJordani. Ngukuphela komfula oqhubekayo wamanzi olwandle onalo. Imvamisa ikhipha inani elikhulu lamanzi ahlanzekile, ikakhulukazi esigodini esisenyakatho.

Engxenyeni eseningizimu imvamisa iphakelwa ngamanzi avela emifudlaneni eminingana. Kepha akuwona umnikelo obalulekile. Lokhu kusho ukuthi izinga loLwandle Olufile alishintshi unyaka wonke. Inani elikhulu likasawoti abanalo lilingana namanani angama-340 amagremu ngelitha ngalinye. Enye yezinto ekhuthaza inani elikhulu likasawoti ukuthi inani lamanzi ahlanzekile eliwatholayo lingaphansi kwenani lamanzi elihwamukayo.

Kulokhu, sinomhwamuko ophakeme kakhulu wamanzi olwandle. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi itholakala endaweni enamazinga okushisa aphezulu nemvula encane. Usawoti otholakala kulamanzi yi-sodium chloride, i-magnesium chlorine, i-calcium chloride, i-potassium chloride, ne-magnesium bromide. Kungashiwo ukuthi cishe u-27% wamanzi olwandle akhiwe ngezinto eziqinile.

Ukwakhiwa kolwandle olufile

izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo ulwandle olufile

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, uLwandle Olufile lusesigodini esiwumfantu. Lokho wukuthi, ukucindezeleka okunqunywe ngamaphutha ahambisana nomunye nomunye. Leli phutha landa kuwo wonke amapuleti ase-Afrika nase-Arabia tectonic plate. Ngaphambi kokuba kudalwe lo mgodi, uLwandle iMedithera lwalubanzi kakhulu kunamanje. Yangena yonke imigwaqo nePalestine ngesikhathi se- isikhathi se-jurassic futhi i hloniphabangu. Noma kunjalo, ku- Miocene ipuleti lase-Arabia lashayisana nengxenye esenyakatho yepuleti lase-Eurasia. Ngale ndlela umhlaba waqala ukukhuphuka nokwakhiwa kwezintaba eziphakathi nePalestine. Kancane kancane, ngokuhamba kweminyaka, lesi sigodi sakha kancane kancane sagcwala amanzi olwandle.

Kakade ePleistocene, kwakukhona umhlaba omningi phakathi kweMedithera nesigodi esakhiwa ngenxa yokuqhekeka phakathi kwamapuleti we-tectonic. Kwakungenzeka ukukhuphula amamitha amaningana kuze kube yilapho amanzi olwandle ehoxiswa. Lokhu kudale ukuthi umgodi namanzi ahlukaniswe. IGulf of Aqaba nayo yayihlukanisiwe.

Izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo zoLwandle Olufile

ukuntanta olwandle olufile

Njengoba sishilo phambilini, usawoti woLwandle Olufile uphakeme kakhulu. Iba cishe kashumi kunosawoti wolwandle. Lokhu kuyenza ibe ugwadule lwasolwandle lapho ezinye izidalwa eziphilayo kuphela ezikwazi ukuhlala kulo. Okuwukuphela kwezinto eziphilayo ezikwazi ukusinda kulezi zimo ezimbi kakhulu ngama-bacteria, ama-protozoa, no-algae one-celi eyodwa.

Iningi lala mawele aluhlobo loDunaliella. Kodwa-ke, kulo lonke ugu loLwandle Olufile singathola izitshalo ezithile ze-halophyte. Lezi zitshalo yilezo eziguqulelwa enhlabathini enokugxila okuphezulu kasawoti noma i-alkalinity. Ngokuphambene nalokho, asikwazi ukuthola noma yiluphi uhlobo lwezinhlanzi, izilwane ezihuquzelayo, izilwane eziphila ezweni nasemanzini nezilwane ezincelisayo ezingaphansi kakhulu. Kwesinye isikhathi, ezinye izinhlanzi zihudulwa emisinga yomfula bese zigcina ngokufa kungasekho nhlobo ithuba lokuthi zisinde.

Ngalesi sizathu, umuntu akakwazi ukukhuluma ngezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo lapho sikhuluma ngoLwandle Olufile. Kodwa-ke, akusho ukuthi lolu lwandle alunazo izinsiza ezibalulekile. Ngenxa yobuningi basawoti, usawoti wayo ungakhishwa ngezinhloso zokwelapha. Ungafaka futhi udaka olusolwandle emzimbeni ngoba lunezakhiwo ezinhle kakhulu ezinamaminerali alo.

Izinsongo

Yize lolu lwandle lungahlushwa ukusetshenziswa ngokweqile kokudoba, ukwanda kwalo nomthamo wehlisiwe phakathi namashumi eminyaka adlule. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi amanzi ayaphambukiswa futhi kunemixhaso emikhulu yomhlaba edala ukuthi ezinye izindawo eziseduzane zibhideke. Kusukela ngo-1960 kube nokuncipha kwenani lamanzi esewonke. Lokhu kwaqala ukwenzeka ngenkathi u-Israyeli esungula indawo yokumpompa ogwini loLwandle lwaseGalile. Lesi siteshi sokumpompa amanzi sabangela ukuthi amanzi oMfula iJordani adluliselwe kwamanye amazwe awasebenzise ukuthi akwazi ukunikezela nokunisela izitshalo.

Ngokuchezukisa inani elikhulu lamanzi lisuka emfudlaneni walo oyinhloko futhi ube nomhwamuko omningi, kubanga umthamo wamanzi olwandle ukuba anciphe. Amanzi ancishiswa cishe ngemitha elilodwa ngonyaka.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngoLwandle Olufile.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.