UGalileo Galilei

UGalileo Galilei kanye nomnikelo kwisayensi yezinkanyezi

Emhlabeni we-physics ne-astronomy kube nemibono eminingi ebilokhu ibusa okwamanje. Okokuqala, ukuchaza ukuthi indawo yonke isebenza kanjani, basitshele ukuthi uMhlaba ubuyisikhungo sendawo yonke umbono we-geocentric. Kamuva, ngiyabonga UNicolaus Copernicus, neyakhe inkolelo ye-heliocentric, kwakwaziwa ukuthi iLanga liyisikhungo se- Uhlelo lomkhathi. Ngemuva kokuguqulwa kwe-heliocentrism, ubaba wesayensi yanamuhla wacatshangelwa UGalileo Galilei. Imayelana nososayensi wase-Italiya owenza imithetho yokuqala yokunyakaza. Ulethe intuthuko enkulu emhlabeni wesayensi yezinkanyezi njengoba sizobona kulokhu okuthunyelwe.

Ngabe ufuna ukwazi kabanzi ngoGalileo Galilei? Lapha sikutshela konke.

I-Biography

UGalileo Galilei

UGalileo Galilei wazalelwa ePisa ngo-1564. Ngezinye izincwadi, singathola ngomama wakhe. Ubaba, uVincenzo Galili, wayenguFlorentine futhi wayevela emndenini okwase kuyisikhathi eside uhlonishwa. Wayengumculi ngokubiza, yize ubunzima bezomnotho bamphoqa ukuthi azinikele kwezentengiselwano. Kusuka kuyise, uGalileo wazuza njengelungelo lokuthanda umculo nobuntu bakhe bokuzimela. Ngenxa yalo moya wokulwa wakwazi ukuthuthuka emhlabeni wocwaningo.

Ngo-1581 waqala ukufunda eNyuvesi yasePisa, lapho akwazi khona ukubhalisa emkhakheni wezokwelapha. Ngemuva kweminyaka engu-4 lapho, wayishiya ngaphandle kokuthola noma yisiphi isihloko, yize ayazi okuningi ngo-Aristotle. Yize engazange athole iziqu, waqala emkhakheni wezibalo. Wanikela iminyaka ethile yempilo yakhe ezinikele kwi-mathematics futhi waba nentshisekelo kukho konke okwakuyifilosofi nezincwadi. Ngemuva kokunikeza amakilasi okuhlola eFlorence naseSiena, wazama ukuthola umsebenzi e-University of Bologna, Padua naseFlorence uqobo.

KwakusePisa vele lapho uGalileo aqamba khona umbhalo mayelana nokunyakaza futhi wagxeka izincazelo zika-Aristotle mayelana nokuwa kwezidumbu nokuhamba kwama-projectiles. Futhi ngu-Aristotle, Eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane ezimbili ngaphambili, wayethe izidumbu ezisindayo zawa ngokushesha okukhulu. UGalileo ukufakazele lokhu kungamanga ngokuthi ngasikhathi sinye alahle imizimba emibili enezisindo ezihlukene ukusuka phezulu kombhoshongo. Bakwazile ukuqhathanisa ukuthi bashaye phansi ngasikhathi sinye.

Wagxila ekubhekeni amaqiniso nasekuwabeka ngaphansi kwezimo akwazi ukuzilawula nokwenza izivivinyo ezilinganisekayo.

Isibonakude sokuqala

UGalileo nesibonakude

Ngokufa kukayise ngo-1591, uGalileo waphoqeleka ukuba athathe umthwalo wemfanelo ngomndeni wakhe. Ngenxa yalokhu, kwaqala ubunzima bezomnotho obabubheda ngokuhamba kweminyaka. Ngo-1602 wakwazi ukuqhubeka nezifundo aziqala enhlanganweni futhi waqala nge-isochronism ye-pendulum nokuhamba kwayo endizeni ethambekele. Ngalezi zifundo wazama ukuqinisa ukuthi uyini umthetho wokuwa kwama-bass. Ngo-1609 wasungula yonke imibono yakhe eyayisebenza ukushicilela umsebenzi wakhe owawubizwa ngokuthi » Izinkulumo nemiboniso yezibalo ezungeze izayensi ezimbili ezintsha (1638) ».

Ngawo lowo nyaka waya eVenice eyocela ukwenyuselwa amaholo futhi waba nezindaba zokuba khona kwensimbi yomshini entsha eyayisetshenziswa ukubukela kude. Kungaleso sikhathi-ke lapho uGalileo Galilei anikela ngemizamo iminyaka eminingi yokwenza ngcono futhi ayenze isibonakude sokuqala.

Wabe eseba ngumuntu owenza ithuluzi ebelilokhu futhi lisiza kakhulu ngokwesayensi nokwazi konke esinakho ngaphandle kweplanethi. Ngo-1610 kwenziwa ukubonwa kokuqala kweNyanga. Uhumushe ukuthi lokhu akubonayo kuwubufakazi obuqondile bokuba khona kwezintaba kusathelayithi yethu.

Lapho uthola iziphuphutheki ezi-4 zeJupiter, ukwazile ukuthi uMhlaba ubungeyona indawo yokuhamba konke. Ngaphezu kwalokho, wakwazi ukubona ukuthi iVenus inezigaba ezithile ezifana nezenyanga. Le yindlela uhlelo lwe-Copernicus olusekelwa ngayo ilanga. UGalileo wabhala umbhalo ngejubane elikhulu ngoba wayefuna ukwenza konke akutholile kwaziwe. Akubanga sikhathi esingakanani wahlonishwa ngomsebenzi wakhe iSidereal Messenger. UJohannes Kepler Ngangimethemba ekuqaleni. Kodwa-ke, kamuva wakwazi ukubona zonke izinzuzo ezazivela ngokusebenzisa isibonakude.

Ukutholwa kwezinkanyezi

UGalileo Galilei nokutholakala kwakhe

Ukhiphe izinhlamvu eziningi lapho anikeze khona ubufakazi obungangabazeki besakhiwo sonke somkhathi. Uphinde wathi zonke lezi zivivinyo yilezo ezinikezwe uCopernicus ikhono lokwenqaba uhlelo lukaPtolemy lokuma komhlaba. Ngalesi sikhathi, ngeshwa, le mibono yaba nesithakazelo kubashushisi. Kodwa-ke, baphikisana ngesixazululo esiphikisayo futhi baqala ukusola ukuthi uCopernicus wayengumhlubuki.

Isigaba sokugcina sempilo kaGalileo Galilei saqala lapho ehlala eFlorence ngo-1610. Kule minyaka, incwadi yayivele ishicilelwe ngamabala elanga atholwa yiJesitititi lamaJesit Christof Scheiner. UGalileo wayesevele ewabonile la mabala elanga phambilini futhi wabakhombisa abantu abathile ababalulekile ngenkathi eseRoma. Lolu hambo alwenza eRoma lamsiza kakhulu njengoba waba yilungu le-Accademia dei Lincei. Lo mphakathi waba ngowokuqala ozinikele kwisayensi owagcina ngesikhathi.

Ngo-1613 ucwaningo lwezinkanyezi ku Umlando nemiboniso ngamachashazi elanga nezingozi zawo, lapho uGalileo aqhamuka aphikisana nencazelo kaScheiner. UmJesuit waseJalimane wayecabanga ukuthi lawo mabala ayengumphumela owengeziwe. Umbhalo uqale impikiswano enkulu ngokuthi ngubani owathola kuqala amabala elanga. Lokhu kwenza amaJesuit waba esinye sezitha ezinonya zikaGalileo Galilei emkhakheni wesayensi nocwaningo.

Vele, konke lokhu kwafinyelela ezindlebeni zecala lokuqula amacala. UGalileo wabizwa eRoma ukuze azophendula kwezinye izinsolo. Isazi sezinkanyezi sathathwa edolobheni ngezinkulumo ezinkulu zokuhlonipha futhi, njengoba impikiswano mayelana nezinsolo zakhe yayiqhubeka, abaphenyi benkantolo bavuma ukunika ingalo yabo ukuguqula noma ukulandela ngokuzithandela izimpikiswano ezinhle kakhulu ayezishiya.

Ngo-1616 wathola isiyalo sokuba angayifundisi obala imibono kaCopernicus. Ekugcineni, lapho eneminyaka engama-70, uGalileo wayesevele eyindoda ehlakaniphile futhi Ushone entathakusa ngoJanuwari 9, 1642.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi i-biography kaGalileo Galilei ikusiza ukwazi okwengeziwe ngososayensi abaguqula izazi zezinkanyezi.


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  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
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  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.