Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton

Inguquko yesayensi eyaqala UNicolaus Copernicus ku-Renaissance, kwaqhubeka UGalileo Galilei futhi kamuva nge I-Kepler. Ekugcineni, umvuthwandaba womsebenzi kwaba usosayensi waseBrithani owaziwa ngokuthi U-Isaac Newton. Wazalwa ngo-1642 futhi ubengomunye wabahlakaniphi abakhulu emlandweni wesayensi. Ube negalelo kumasayensi ahlukene njengezibalo, i-astronomy ne-optics. Kodwa-ke, okunethonya kunakho konke yi-physics.

Kulesi sihloko sizokhuluma nge-biography nokuxhashazwa kuka-Isaac Newton ukuze ukwazi ukwazi omunye wama-greats esayensi ngokujulile.

Izenzo ezinkulu

UNewton uyafunda

Ukuze athole izinto futhi enze izinguquko kwezesayensi, kwakufanele azi kuqala izifundo ezazivele zishicilelwe ngokuhamba ngemithetho kaGalileo noKepler eyayichaza imijikelezo yamaplanethi. Ngakho-ke, uNewton ukwazile ukusungula imithetho eyisisekelo esiyaziyo ngamandla e-physics. Le mithetho yileyo ye-inertia, ukulingana kwamandla, umthetho wokusheshisa kanye nomgomo wokusebenza nokuphendula. Ngenxa yalolu lwazi, wayeqhubeka ephenya izimfihlakalo ze-physics waze wakwazi ukusungula umthetho wamandla adonsela phansi.

Wonke umphakathi wesayensi washaqeka ngokuthola ukuthi u-Isaac Newton wayezombulula. Ubudlelwano phakathi kwamandla nokunyakaza bungachaza futhi bubikezele umzila we-orbit ye Iplanethi ebomvu, ngasikhathi sinye ukuthi ingahlanganisa yonke imishini eyayikhona phakathi koMhlaba nomkhathi ongaphandle.

I-Aristotelianism yayihlala njalo futhi igcina umbuso wayo iminyaka ecishe ibe ngu-2.000 XNUMX. Ngenxa yohlelo olwenziwe nguNewton ngemithetho yokunyakaza, angaqeda ulwazi ngo-Aristotle futhi dala ipharadayim entsha ebigcinwa kwaze kwaqala ikhulu lama-XNUMX, lapho omunye umuntu ohlakaniphile ogama lakhe lingu-Albert Einstein enza ifomula yombono wokuhlobana.

I-Biography

Izenzo zikaNewton

Ubusha bukaNewton babungelula. Wazalwa ngoDisemba 25, 1642 esigodini esaziwa ngokuthi yiWoolsthorpe. Uyise wayesanda kudlula emhlabeni ngemishini njengomnikazi womhlaba. Lapho eneminyaka engu-3, ​​umama wakhe waphinde washada futhi wayohlala nomyeni wakhe omusha, washiya uNewton enakekelwa ugogo wakhe ongumama. Ngemuva kweminyaka eyi-12, umama wakhe waphinde waba ngumfelokazi futhi wabuyela emakhaya nefa kusuka kule ndoda yesibili. Lapho umama wakhe eshona ngo-1679, walithola ifa.

Isimilo sakhe sasinqunywa ngokuba ngothile, athule futhi azindle. Wayengajwayele ukudlala nabanye abafana, kepha wayekhetha ukwakha izinto zobuciko nezitsha amantombazane azodlala ngazo.

NgoJuni 1661, wangeniswa eTrinity College, eCambridge, futhi wabhaliswa njengenceku. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ubuthola ukwesekwa kwakho ngokushintshana nezinsizakalo ezithile zasekhaya. Yilapho aqala khona izifundo zakhe ngendlela yokushintshashintsha, umbono wemibala nemibono yokuqala ayeyicabanga ngokukhanga kwamandla adonsela phansi. Lokhu kukhanga kwamandla adonsela phansi bekugxile emjikelezweni wenyanga onawo emhlabeni. Nguye uqobo owayephethe ukusabalalisa impumelelo yakhe kwezesayensi. Enye yezinto azifeza kakhulu ukucabanga ngamandla adonsela phansi lapho ebuka ngokunganaki i-apula liwa esihlahleni esivandeni. Yilapho aqala khona ukucabanga ukuthi kungani i-apula liwele phansi nakho konke okuphathelene namandla adonsela phansi.

UVoltaire wayephethe ukusabalalisa yonke indaba kaNewton ephrintiwe. Wayenguthisha iminyaka eminingana futhi akubonakali ukuthi le mithwalo yokufundisa yinto eyayimvimba ukuthi aqhubeke nezifundo zakhe.

Ukuthola okubalulekile

I-Apple ne-newton

Ngalesi sikhathi, u-Isacc Newton wabhala ukudalulwa kwakhe kokuqala okuhlelekile kusibalo esilinganiselwe. Zashicilelwa eminyakeni eyalandela lapho kutholakala ifomula elidumile lokuthuthukiswa kwamandla we-binomial nganoma iyiphi i-exponent, kokubili inani eliphelele kanye ne-fractional, latholakala.

Wayenezinto ezitholakele hhayi kwi-mathematics kuphela, kodwa nasemkhakheni we-optics. Isahluko sesayensi akhethe ukusifaka emakilasini akhe kwakuyi-optics. Wayenokunaka okukhethekile kulolu daba kusukela ngo-1666 futhi wayefuna ukukuletha ekutholeni. Ngo-1672 wayesevele enokuxhumana kokuqala ngale ndaba ngenxa yokuthi iNhlangano Yososayensi yamkhetha njengomunye wamalungu ayo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi wakha isibonakude esibonakalisayo. Ikhono likaNewton lokunikeza ubufakazi bokuhlola abutholile lalingenakuphikwa. Wayekwazi ukufundisa ukuthi ukukhanya okumhlophe kwakuyinhlanganisela yemisebe enemibala ehlukene nokuthi ngamunye wayenokuhlukahluka okuhlukile lapho edlula ku-prism optical.

Ngo-1679, wayengekho eCambridge izinyanga ezimbalwa ngenxa yokushona kukanina. Lapho ebuya, wathola incwadi evela URobert hooke, unobhala weRoyal Society, lapho azame ukumkholisa ukuthi abuyisele ukuxhumana kwakhe nalesi sikhungo futhi wasikisela ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi aphawule Imibono kaHooke uqobo eyayiphathelene nokunyakaza kwamaplanethi emzileni wawo.

Eminyakeni ethile kamuva, u-Edmond Halley, ngaleso sikhathi owayesebonile ukuthi I-Halley comet, wavakashela uNewton embuza ukuthi kungaba njani ukuzungeza kweplanethi uma amandla adonsela phansi ancipha ngesikwele sebanga. Impendulo kaNewton ibishesha: i-ellipse.

Iminyaka edlule

I-Royal Society

Umsebenzi wakhe, iMathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, waduma impela yize ukufunda kwawo kwakunzima kakhulu. Ukhethwe yinyuvesi njengommeleli weKing James II ephalamende. Wayenempilo enhle kusukela ebuntwaneni kuze kube seminyakeni yokugcina yokuphila. Ekuqaleni kuka-1722, isifo sezinso sabangela i-kidney colic eminingi ebucayi. Phakathi nale minyaka edlule, wayehlushwa kakhulu yilesi sifo. Ekugcineni, washona ekuseni ngoMashi 20, 1727 ngemuva kokwenqaba ukuthola usizo lokugcina lweSonto.

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, u-Isaac Newton wayengumguqukeli weqiniso wesayensi futhi umnikelo wakhe usakhunjulwa namuhla njengomunye wososayensi abaphambili emhlabeni.

 


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.