Izimangaliso zoMfula iNayile

Izimangaliso zoMfula iNayile

Njengoba ubude bamakhilomitha angu-6.853, umfula iNayile unomehluko wokuba umfula wesibili omude kunawo wonke emhlabeni, udlulwa kuphela umfula i-Amazon, onaba ngamakhilomitha ayi-7.062. Umfula iNayile uphakelwa imingenela emibili emikhulu: iNayile Emhlophe kanye neBlue Nile. Ngaphandle kwalawa maqiniso ayisisekelo, kunamaqiniso amaningi athakazelisayo ngoMfula iNayile abalulekile ekuqondeni ukubaluleka kwawo ngokomlando.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ukuthi ifayili le- Izimangaliso zoMfula iNayile okuhlaba umxhwele.

Izici zendawo

Umfula iNayile

Lezi yizinto ezithokozisayo zoMfula iNayile ezihlobene nezici zawo zendawo:

  • I-drainage yomfula iNayile, ehlanganisa cishe I-10% yendawo yonke yase-Afrika, ihlanganisa umgodi ongaba yizigidi ezi-3,4 km2. Ngobubanzi obucishe bube ngu-2,8 km, iwumzila omkhulu wamanzi.
  • Imithombo yamanzi yalo mfula onqamulelayo yabelwa izizwe eziyishumi nanye: iTanzania, i-Uganda, iRwanda, iBurundi, iCongo-Kinshasa, iKenya, i-Ethiopia, i-Eritrea, iSouth Sudan, iSudan ne-Egypt. Ngokunwetshwa okulinganiselwa ku-160 km, umfula woMfula iNayile udlulela ngasogwini lwamakhilomitha angama-240. Lesi sifunda esivundile sinomlando omude wokulinywa kwezolimo, kusukela ezinkulungwaneni zeminyaka.
  • Ngaphambi kuka-2004, akekho owayephumelele ukuwela wonke uMfula iNayile.. Abahloli bamazwe ababili abanesibindi benza lesi senzo esimangalisayo phakathi nenkathi yezinyanga ezine.
  • Umfula iNayile uthola amanzi awo emithonjeni emibili emikhulu: iNayile Emhlophe kanye neBlue Nile. Nakuba umfula i-Atbara uhlangana nomfula iNayile eSudan, umnikelo wawo ekugelezeni okuphelele ungaphansi kwe-1%.
  • Umzila omkhulu weNayile, owaziwa ngokuthi iNayile Emhlophe, udabuka endaweni emaphakathi ne-Afrika eyaziwa ngokuthi amaChibi Amakhulu. Yize indawo okuyiyonayona imvelaphi ingakacaciswanga ngokugcwele, kukholakala ukuthi itholakala eRwanda noma eBurundi.
  • Isuka eLake Tana e-Ethiopia, I-Blue Nile iwumhlinzeki oyinhloko wamanzi nomhlabathi onothile ngezakhi. Umzila wayo usuka eningizimu-mpumalanga yeSudan.
  • Njengoba usondela oLwandle iMedithera, umfula uhlukana ube izingalo ezimbili ezihlukene: iGatsha laseRosetta ngasentshonalanga kanye neGatsha laseDamietta empumalanga. Ekugcineni, zombili izingalo zihlangana namanzi aseMedithera.

Iminikelo emlandweni namasiko

indlela yomfula iNayile

Lezi yizimangaliso zoMfula iNayile mayelana namagalelo awo emlandweni namasiko aseGibhithe:

  • Isifunda sase-Upper Egypt, esaziwa nangokuthi "izwe lemihlanga" (i-Ta Shemau), sathola igama ekukhuleni okuchichimayo kwe-papyrus ngasosebeni lweNayile, cishe abantu abayizigidi ezingama-40, abamele cishe ingxenye yabantu baseGibhithe. hlala endaweni ye-Nile River Delta.
  • Umlando wase-Egypt uhlanganiswe ngokujulile nalowo weNayile, njengoba kuyikhaya lezindawo eziningi ezibalulekile zomlando, okuhlanganisa iLuxor neCairo. Ngo-1787 itshe elidumile laseRosetta latholwa endaweni yomfula iNayile, ikakhulukazi edolobheni laseRosetta. Lesi sici sasendulo saba nesandla ekuthuthukiseni ukuqonda kwethu i-hieroglyphics yaseGibhithe.
  • Iminyaka eminingi, iNayile ibilokhu ikhukhula amabhange awo azungezile phakathi nezinkathi ezithile zonyaka, okuholela ekunothisweni kwenhlabathi kanye nokwenza lula ukuchelela eGibhithe. Nokho, ukwakhiwa kwedamu i-Aswan ngo-1970 kwaqeda izikhukhula zaminyaka yonke.

I-Nile River Biodiversity

i-ecosystem

Umfula iNayile uyikhaya lezinhlobo ezicebile nezihlukene zezilwane, okubonisa ukubaluleka kokuhlukahluka kwemvelo kulesi simiso sezinto eziphilayo esiyingqayizivele. Ungathola izinhlobo eziningi zezinhlanzi, kuhlanganise ne-Nile perch, eyaziwa ngesisindo sayo esimangalisayo esingaphezu kwamakhilogremu angu-80. Ezinye izinhlobo zezinhlanzi ezikhona emfuleni zihlanganisa i-Bolti, i-barbel, izinhlobo ezihlukahlukene ze-catfish, i-elephant nose fish, i-tiger fish (eyaziwa nangokuthi ingwe yamanzi), i-lungfish ne-eel. Nakuba izimvubu zake zaba ziningi kulo lonke uhlelo lweNayile, manje zilinganiselwe esifundeni sase-Al-Sudd nasezindaweni eziseningizimu.

Kukhona nezilwane ezihuquzelayo ezimbalwa eziphawulekayo, okuhlanganisa ufudu oluthambile, izinhlobonhlobo ezintathu zezibankwa, kanye nezinhlobo ezicishe zibe ngamashumi amathathu zezinyoka, ezingaphezu kwengxenye yazo ezinamandla okubulala. Ingwenya yoMfula iNayile, eyaziwa ngobukhulu bayo obukhulu, ingabonwa eduze nomfula, okuyenza ibe enye yezinhlobo zezingwenya ezinkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni.

Isikhukhula soMfula iNayile

Ukukhukhula koMfula iNayile kuyisihluthulelo sokuvula inqwaba yezinto ezibalulekile. Akukhona nje ukuba khona koMfula iNayile okwenze kube lula ukuvela nokuthuthuka kweGibhithe Lasendulo, impucuko eyagqama ngokuthuthuka kwayo ngesikhathi sayo. I-catalyst yangempela umnotho wabo osimeme kanye nendlela yokuphila kwakuwukukhukhula kwaminyaka yonke kosebe lomfula. Lesi simo semvelo sabangela ukuthi amanzi eNayile akhuphuke kancane kancane, agcine ekhukhule amathafa azungezile nhlangothi zombili zomfula.

Ukuze uthole imbangela yezikhukhula zaminyaka yonke zoMfula iNayile, umuntu kufanele ahambe izinkulungwane zamakhilomitha aye ezindaweni eziseningizimu, lapho izingxenye zokuqala zalo mzila omkhulu wamanzi zihlala khona. Ikakhulukazi eBlue Nile, enye yezindawo ezimbili ezingenela ivolumu yayo kusukela eNayile ePhakathi kuye phambili, lapho impendulo ilele khona. Njengoba lidabuka e-Ethiopian massif, leli gatsha lihlangabezana nesikhathi sokuna kwemvula enkulu phakathi nezinyanga zikaMeyi kuya ku-August, ezihambisana nenkathi yezimvula ezinkulu. Kanye nokuchichima koMfula i-Sobat ungene e-White Nile, lokhu kubangela ukwanda okuphawulekayo kokugeleza kwamanzi ahamba kancane kancane aya enyakatho, anqobe ama-cataract ayisithupha futhi afinyelele eGibhithe cishe ngoJuni noma ngoJulayi.

Ngakho-ke, Izinga lezikhukhula zoMfula iNayile lanquma umjikelezo waminyaka yonke. Phakathi nezinyanga zikaJulayi kuya kuLwezi, inkathi yezikhukhula iyenzeka, ilandelwe yinkathi esukela kuLwezi kuya kuNdasa, eyaziwa ngokuthi isikhathi sokuhoxa kwamanzi noma ukuvela komhlaba. Ekugcineni, kusukela ngoMashi kuya kuJulayi kuyinkathi yokuvuna.

I-Ethiopian Massif ihlangabezana nomjikelezo waminyaka yonke wemvula yezimvula ezinkulu, kodwa lezi zimvula zingaba ngaphansi kokuhlukahluka kwesimo sezulu okwehlayo noma okwandisa amandla azo. Lokhu kuhlukahluka kunomthelela omkhulu ohlelweni lwezolimo lwaseGibhithe, njengoba kungaholela ekukhukhuleni ngokweqile koMfula iNayile noma, ngokuphambene, ukuntuleka kwamanzi anele. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinga kanye nesikhathi salezi zikhukhula ziyehluka ezindaweni ezahlukene. Ukubikezela amazinga ezikhukhula, EGibhithe lasendulo, kwakusetshenziswa izakhiwo ezifana neNilometer.

Namuhla, izivakashi zisengabuka enye yalezi zinguzunga zama-nilometer eCairo. Ikakhulukazi, kunomehluko ophawulekayo wamaphethini ezikhukhula phakathi kwe-Aswan, eseningizimu yeGibhithe ekupheleni kweNayile Ephakathi, neCairo, indawo ethuthuke kakhudlwana etholakala ngaphambi kokwakhiwa kweDelta.

Izinga elikhuphukayo lamanzi e-Aswan labonakala ngoJuni futhi lafinyelela umvuthwandaba ekupheleni kuka-Okthoba, lafinyelela isikhukhula esicishe sibe ngamamitha ayi-14. Ngemva kwesonto eCairo, abantu baqala ukubona ukukhuphuka kwamanzi ezikhukhula e-Aswan, nezinga eliphakeme lifinyelela cishe kumamitha angu-7,5.

Ngithemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi mayelana nezinto ezikhangayo zoMfula iNayile kanye nezici zawo.


Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.