Izilwane zePaleogene

Izilwane zePaleogene

Ngaphakathi Isikhathi seCenozoic sinayo Isikhathi sePaleogene. Kukwahlukaniswa kwesilinganiso sesikhathi esithatha iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-66 futhi saphela cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-23 edlule. Kule nkathi sinokuziphendukela kwemvelo kwezilwane ezincelisayo yize bekufanele zivele ezinhlotsheni zosayizi omncane kakhulu. I- Izilwane zePaleogene maka ngaphambi nangemva, ikakhulukazi ezincelisayo.

Ngakho-ke, sizonikezela le ndatshana ukukutshela ngazo zonke izici nokuvela kwezilwane zasePaleogene.

Isikhathi sePaleogene

Lesi sikhathi kwakuwumsuka wezinhlobo zakudala zokuphila kwakamuva. Kumele sikhumbule ukuthi ekuqaleni kwalesi sikhathi se-geological kwaba nokuqothulwa okuhambisana nama-dinosaurs ekupheleni kwesikhathi isikhathi se-cretaceous. Ku-geology yalesi sikhathi sibona ukuthi amapuleti e-Australia naseNdiya ahanjiswe ngasenyakatho-mpumalanga ngenxa yokuhamba kwezwekazi. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi ijubane lokuhamba kwalezi Amapuleti ama-tectonic ayengamasentimitha ayi-6 ngonyaka. Njengamanje leli zinga liphansi kakhulu.

Kumele futhi sikhumbule ukuthi izilwane zasePaleogene zathinteka yizinguquko zesimo sezulu ezingeni lomhlaba jikelele. Kube nezinguquko zesimo sezulu esibi njengokupholisa okujwayelekile kwazo zonke izindawo ezibandayo. Ngenxa yokwehla kwawo wonke amazinga okushisa omhlaba, umhlaba wonke ungavunyelwa ukuthi uphole. Njengoba isikhathi sePaleogene siqhubeka, amazinga okushisa eplanethi akhuphukile futhi. Futhi ukuthi ukwanda kwamazinga okushisa kusize ukuba nesimo sezulu esishisayo ezindaweni eziningi. Njengoba sazi, isimo sezulu esishisayo sibonakala kakhulu yi ubuningi bamazinga okushisa aphezulu, umswakama ophakeme nemvula enhle. Konke lokhu kuholela ekwakhiweni kwezilwane zasePaleogene.

Izinto eziningi eziphilayo bekufanele zivumelane nesimo sezulu futhi zikwazi ukukwenza naphezu kokuqothulwa okwenzeke esikhathini esedlule. Enye ye-taxa engakhula kwakuyizitshalo ze-angiosperm.

Izilwane zePaleogene

izilwane zasendle ezishisayo ze-paleogene

Isikhathi sePaleogene sihlukaniswe izikhathi ezintathu: the I-Paleocene, the Kulungile futhi i Oligocene. Kuzo zonke lezi zikhathi sithola ukuthuthukiswa okuhlukile kwezilwane zasePaleogene. Ake sihlaziye ukuthi yimiphi ngokuningiliziwe.

I-Paleocene

Ngesikhathi sePaleocene sathola inqwaba yezilwane okwakudingeka ziphile ngokuqothulwa okukhulu kukaCretaceous ongasekho. Ngenxa yalo mcimbi wokuqothulwa okukhulu, izilwane zikwazile ukuthuthukisa izimo zengqondo ezahlukahlukene ukuze zivumelane nezindawo ezintsha. Lokhu kuqothulwa kwamnika ithuba lokuhlukahluka futhi kwandiswe ezinhlotsheni ezithile zezitshalo nezilwane. Bathathe ikakhulukazi ithuba lokuthi izibankwakazi zase zikhona vele. Futhi ngabe yilezi zilwane babhekwa njengezilwane ezibaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni wonke. Zonke izilwane bekufanele zincintisane ngemithombo yemvelo nama-dinosaurs.

Phakathi kwezilwane zasePaleogene ezigqame esikhathini sePaleocene sinezilwane ezihuquzelayo. Babeyiqembu lezilwane ezasinda ekuqothulweni kahle kakhulu futhi zathandwa ngenxa yezimo zezulu zalesi sikhathi. Phakathi kwezilwane ezinwabuzelayo eziningi kakhulu sithola ama-campassosaurs ahlala kakhulu ezindaweni ezinamanzi. Izinyoka nezimfudu zasolwandle nakho kwaba nentuthuko enkulu.

Ngokuqondene nezinyoni, zanwetshwa ngenxa yokwanda kwamazinga okushisa ezindaweni ezishisayo. Izinyoni ezethusayo zazaziwa kakhulu ngaleso sikhathi. Zazinkulu kodwa zingenawo amandla okundiza. Imikhuba yalezi zinhlobo yayidla futhi ibhekwa njengezilwane ezidlayo ezilwaneni eziningi. Ezinye izinhlobo zezinyoni ezathola intuthuko enkulu ngesikhathi sezilwane zasePaleogene izinhlanzi zasolwandle, amajuba, izikhova namadada.

Izilwane zasolwandle nazo zithuthuke kakhulu ngokuya ngezinhlanzi. Kukhiqize ukuncintisana okukhulu emkhakheni wezasolwandle kanti oshaka basakazeka baba yizilwane ezintsha ezihlasela kakhulu. Emkhakheni wezilwane ezincelisayo, esinye sezilwane esithuthuke kakhulu ngesikhathi sezilwane zePaleogene, sithola ama-placentals, monotremes kanye nama-marsupials. Sithola neqembu lamagundane, ama-primates, ama-lemurs, phakathi kwabanye.

Kulungile

Isikhathi sePaleogene

Esikhathini seMiocene, izilwane zasePaleogene zakhula ikakhulukazi eqenjini lezilwane ezincelisayo nezinyoni. Izinambuzane ezingenamgogodla zikwazi ukuthuthukisa futhi zahlukahluka kakhulu emvelweni yasolwandle. Ama-mollusk amaningi, ama-gastropods, ama-bivalves, ama-cnidarians echinoderms ingakhula ngesikhathi. Iqembu lezintuthwane mhlawumbe yiqembu lezilwane elithuthuke kakhulu ngokwezinambuzane ezingenamgogodla.

Izinyoni kwakuyizinhlobo ezavela ngenxa yezimo ezinhle zemvelo. Eziningi kakhulu kwakuyizinhlobo ezaziwayo njengoPhorusrhacidae, Gastornis kanye namaphengwini. Emkhakheni wezilwane ezihuquzelayo nezilwane ezincelisayo ezikhule ngesilinganiso esihle, sathola izilwane ezingaba amamitha ayishumi ubude. Phakathi kwalezi zilwane sinama-ungulates, ama-cetaceans nama-Ambulocytids. Isilwane ngasinye sasinezici ezikhethekile ezazisiza ukuba zivumelane nemvelo eyayikhona ngaleso sikhathi.

Oligocene

Ingxenye yokugcina yezilwane zasePaleogene ibhekisa kuzilwane zase-Oligocene. Kubonakala ngokuba namaqembu amaningi ezilwane ezahlukahlukene futhi achuma naphezu kwezimo zezulu ezitholakale kuzo. Lapha ukuvela kwezilwane ezincelisayo kugqama. Kwavela inani elikhulu lezinhlobo ezincelisayo, phakathi kwazo esinamagundane, ama-canids, ama-primates nama-cetaceans.

Izinduku zazinesici esiyinhloko sokuba nezinsimbi ezibukhali ezinokusetshenziswa okuningi. Ukusetshenziswa kwayo bekuyinto enkulu leyo yokuluma izilwane ezidla ezinye noma ukuququda izinkuni. Ama-Primates ayiqembu elithuthuke ngokwengeziwe lezilwane ezincelisayo futhi abonakala ngokuba nezinzwane ezinhlanu ezithweni zawo. Phakathi kwezinzuzo zokuziphendukela kwalezi zilwane ngaphezu kwezinye izilwane ezincelisayo ukuthi zinezithupha eziphikisanayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, banezinyawo ze-plantigrade ezivumela wonke amathe onyawo ukuthi asekwe ukuze ihambe kahle.

Ama-Canids angamalungu eqembu lezimpisi nezinja. Isici sabo esikhulu ukuthi babe nomzimba omaphakathi futhi bahambe ngamathiphu eminwe. Banokudla okudlayo futhi imvamisa batholakala kusixhumanisi somzingeli ochungechungeni lokudla.

Ekugcineni, ama-cetaceans kwakuyiqembu lezilwane ezincelisayo ezakhula kancane ngesikhathi sezilwane zasePaleogene. Bekuyizilwane ezijwayele kakhulu impilo yasolwandle, yize zisenokuphefumula kwamaphaphu.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezilwane zePaleogene.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.