Izilwane zaseMiocene

El Miocene ibingenye yezikhathi ezimbili ezakha i- Isikhathi seNeogene ngaphakathi kwe Isikhathi seCenozoic. Yisikhathi lapho izinguquko ezinkulu zenzeka khona ezingeni lesimo sezulu, elebhayoloji kanye ne-orogenic. Isimo sezulu sibe nokushintshashintsha okuhlukahlukene emazingeni okushisa futhi lokhu kudale ukuthi kuthuthukiswe ngempumelelo izinhlobo ezithile zezilwane nezitshalo ezingahlukahluka zisabalale ezindaweni eziningi. I- Izilwane zaseMiocene lalibonakala ngokuba nezilwane ezaziphila ezindaweni ezifanayo eziphilayo nezinye ezazingathuthuka kabanzi.

Kulesi sihloko sizokutshela ngazo zonke izici, ukuziphendukela kwemvelo nezinhlobo zezilwane zaseMiocene.

Izici eziyinhloko

Izilwane zaseMiocene

Sonke lesi sikhathi kube nokuguquguquka okuthile emazingeni okushisa omhlaba. Ekuqaleni kweMiocene sathola amazinga okushisa aphansi kakhulu akhula kancane ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Cishe maphakathi nesizini, amazinga okushisa afudumele afinyelela kuzinombolo ezinkulu zezinhlobo zezitshalo nezilwane ukuze zikhule ngempumelelo.

Icala lezilwane ezincelisayo, izinyoni kanye nezilwane ezihuquzelayo kanye nezilwane eziphila ezweni nasemanzini yizo ezazingahlukahluka kakhulu phakathi naso sonke lesi sikhathi. Kuyaziwa ngenxa yerekhodi elibalulekile lezinsalela ukuthi kunezibonelo ezazihlala kwiplanethi yethu ngaleso sikhathi.

IMiocene kwakuyisikhathi esathatha cishe cishe cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-8 edlule futhi yaqala cishe eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-23 edlule. Phakathi naso sonke lesi sikhathi umsebenzi we-orogenic wawumkhulu kakhulu, okwenza ukuthi kukhule izintaba ezahlukahlukene. Kwezinye izindawo ezithile emhlabeni lokhu kukhula kwe-orogenic kube nemiphumela ebalulekile. Esinye sazo kwakuyinkinga kasawoti kaMesiya.

Ngenxa yalezi zinguquko ze-orogenic kanye namazinga okushisa afudumele kakhulu kuwo wonke umhlaba iningi lezilwane ezincelisayo, izinyoni, izilwane ezihuquzelayo kanye nezilwane eziphila ezweni lingahlukahluka. Kukhona amarekhodi ezinsalela ukuthi izinombolo ezinkulu nezinhlobonhlobo zezilwane ezincelisayo zazikhona ngalesi sikhathi. Zonke izinsalela zamasayizi zinobukhulu obuhlukile kanye nokudla kwangaphambili. Kuyaziwa ukuthi izilwane ezincelisayo kwakuyiqembu lezilwane ezahlangabezana nentuthuko enkulu nokwehlukahlukana.

Flora

Ingwe yezilwane iMiocene

Ngaphambi kokuqhubeka nokuhlaziya izilwane zaseMiocene, kufanele futhi sicabangele nezimbali. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ingxenye enkulu yezilwane ezazikhona eMiocene kwakuyizilwane ezidla imfuyo. Ingxenye enkulu yalezi zilwane nezitshalo iyagcinwa namuhla, yakha ingxenye ebalulekile yokwehlukahlukana okukhulu kwemvelo.

Ngesikhathi seMiocene kwabonwa ukwehla okuphawulekayo kwezinga lamahlathi namahlathi. Lokhu kungenxa yokwehla kwamazinga okushisa okwenzekile ekuqaleni kwesikhathi. Esinye sezizathu esenza ukuthi izikhala zezitshalo zincishiswe kungenxa yokwehla kwemvula emhlabeni jikelele. Ngalesi sizathu, izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo bekufanele zivumelane nalezi zimo zemvula ephansi.

Ngenxa yalokhu, izitshalo ezinomuthi kanye nalezo ezincane ngosayizi yilezo ezaqala ukubusa iplanethi. Lezi yizitshalo ezinamandla amakhulu okumelana nezikhathi ezinde zesomiso nesithwathwa. Ngalesi sikhathi ama-angiosperms achuma. Yilezo zitshalo ezinembewu emboziwe.

I-Herbaceous yilezo zitshalo okungekho iziqu zazo. Ziyiziqu eziguquguqukayo ezinombala oluhlaza kanye namaqabunga aluhlaza. Atholakala ngamaqembu futhi amelana impela nesomiso namazinga okushisa aphansi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, sithola i-chaparral. I-chaparral uhlobo lwe-biome lapho kuvela khona uhlobo oluthile lwezimila olwaziwa ngokuthi ama-chaparros. Lezi zihlahla ezimfushane izihlahlana ezincane zohlobo lwezinkuni ezikwazi ukusinda ezimweni ezimbi kakhulu zemvelo. I-Cacti nezihlahla nazo zithuthukiswe kakhulu.

Izilwane zaseMiocene

Ngalesi sikhathi, akunakuphikwa ukuthi iqembu lezilwane eziseMiocene fauna ezathuthukisa kakhulu kwakuyizilwane ezincelisayo. Zombili izilwane ezincelisayo ezifana neqembu lamagundane zikwazile ukuguquka, zaba yizilwane ezinkulu ezincelisayo njengezinye zasolwandle. Iqembu lezinyoni libuye labona ukwanda okukhulu ngobubanzi nangobuningi. Konke lokhu kwaziwa ngenxa yezinsalela zezinhlobo ezitholakale emhlabeni wonke.

Izilwane ezincelisayo zasemhlabeni ezazichichima ngesikhathi sezilwane zaseMiocene yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • I-Gomphotherium (engasekho): yisilwane esincelisayo esikhulu esasinendawo yaso ezindaweni zase-Eurasia. Ifike kumamitha ama-3 ngosayizi futhi enye yezimpawu zayo ezinkulu ukuthi babenezimbili zamazinyo ezimpondo ezinde futhi ezingazweli.
  • I-Amphicyon: ngolunye uhlobo olwalungasekho namuhla. Ukubukeka kwakhe kwakungokwesilwane phakathi kwenja nebhere. Ngomzimba ohlangene kahle, yayinezitho ezi-4 eziwugqinsi nomsila omude. Babekala imitha ukuphakama namamitha amabili ubude bese benesisindo esingaphezu kwama-200 kilos.
  • I-Merychippus: namuhla lesi silwane asisekho. Kwakuyisilwane esincane futhi sibonakala ngokuba neminwe emi-3 kwilungu ngalinye. Uchwepheshe wokuhambahamba emihlambini eyoklaba. Ngokubukeka bekufana namahhashi anamuhla namadube.
  • I-Astrapotherium: esinye isilwane esingasekho namuhla. Kwakungesinye sezilwane ezincelisayo ezinkulu kunazo zonke, sinesisindo esifinyelela kutani futhi silinganisa amamitha ama-3 ubude. Phakathi kokunye obekugqame kakhulu bekukhona namazinyo akhombisa ukuthi ibilidlisa inyama. Bangakwazi ukuhamba ezindaweni ezinamanzi nezomile ngenxa yemilenze emikhulu.
  • I-Megapedetese: olunye uhlobo olungolokuhleleka kwamagundane. Usayizi wayo wawumncane kakhulu yize wawufinyelela kuma-3 kilos. Umzimba wawufana nowomvundla futhi wawunamandla nemilenze yangemuva enamandla. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izingalo zayo zangaphambili zazimfushane impela.

Njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, izilwane ezincelisayo zasemanzini nazo zahluka kakhulu phakathi nalesi sikhathi. Eqenjini lezinyoni kwakukhona izibonelo ezinkulu nezinye ezathuthukisa amandla azo okusinda kancane. Ngokuqondene nezilwane ezihuquzelayo nezilwane eziphila ezweni, lezo zidla ezidla inyama zaziningi.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ngalolu lwazi ungafunda kabanzi ngezilwane zaseMiocene.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.